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SARGON III 



The Ultimate in Computer Chess 

by Dan and Kathe Spracklen 


II 

$ o 


F T W A R E 





SARGON III 
COMPUTER CHESS 


by 

Dan and Kathe Spracklen 


Atari Version by Lynn and Alex Ford 
Commodore 64 Version by Skeet Hannigan 
Chess Commentary by Boris Baczynskyj 


30040-01 



With special thanks to 
Jill Futch 

for editing, manuscript preparation, and data entry 


Limited Warranty. If during the first 90 days from 
purchase the disk is found to be defective, return disk to 
Hayden for a free replacement. After 90 days send your 
disk and $10.00 for replacement. To obtain this warranty you 
must complete and return the enclosed registration card. 

Neither Hayden Software Company nor the author(s) of 
this program are liable or responsible to the purchaser or 
user for loss or damage caused, or alleged to be caused, 
directly or indirectly by the software and its attendant 
documentation, including (but not limited to) interruption 
of service, loss of business or anticipatory profits. 


HAYDEN SOFTWARE CO. 

650 Suffolk Street 
Lowell, MA 01854 
1-800-343-1218 
(in MA, call 617-937-0200) 


Copyright©1984, Hayden Software Company, Inc. All rights reserved. 
Commodore 64 is a registered trademark of Commodore Business Machines. 
Atari is a registered trademark of Atari, Inc. 





Table of Contents 

INTRODUCTION Page 

Organization of the User's Guide 1 

Design Philosophy 2 

SECTION 1— PLAYING CHESS 

"Let's Play Chess" from the U.S. Chess Federation 3 

Chess Notation 11 

Hardware Requirements 12 

Loading Instructions 12 

Game Messages 13 

Playing Chess with SARGON III 13 

SARGON's Response 14 

New Game 15 

Exiting the Program 15 

Other Features 15 

SECTION 2— SPECIAL FEATURES 

1. New Game (CTRL-N) 17 

2. Exiting the Program (CTRL-Q) 17 

3. Level Select (SHIFT-1 to SHIFT-9) 18 

4. Terminate Search (CTRL-T) 19 

5. Changing Sides with SARGON (CTRL-S) 19 

6. Invert Board (CTRL-I) 19 

7. Taking Back Moves (CTRL-B) 19 

8. Offer Suggested Move (CTRL-O) 20 

9. Easy Mode (CTRL-E) 21 

10. Verify Mode (Two Players) (CTRL-V) 21 

11. Zap Beeper (CTRL-Z) 21 

12. Draw Offer (CTRL-D) 22 

13. Replay Game (CTRL-R) 22 

14. Print List of Moves (CTRL-P) 22 

15. Write Board to Printer (CTRL-W) 23 

16. Save Game to Disk (CTRL-G) 23 

17. Load Game from Disk (CTRL-L) 25 

18. Analysis Mode (Change Board) (CTRL-A) 26 

19. Change Color with the Move (CTRL-C) 27 

20. The Opening Library 27 

21. Cancel Opening Library (CTRL-Y) 28 

22. Window on the Search (CTRL-J) 28 

23. Change Display Color 29 



SECTION 3— GREAT GAMES 

1. Anderssen — Kieseritsky, London, 1851 33 

2. Anderssen — Dufresne, Berlin, 1852 33 

3. Paulsen — Morphy, New York, 1857 33 

4. Schulten — Morphy, New York, 1857 33 

5. Morphy — -Duke of Braunschweig and 

Count Isouard, Paris, 1858 33 

6. Morphy — Lowenthal, London, 1858 33 

7. Englisch — Steinitz, London, 1863 33 

8. Anderssen — Steinitz, London, 1866 33 

9. Zuckertort — Blackburne, London, 1883 33 

10. Chigorin — Steinitz, Havana, 1892 34 

11. Steinitz — von Bardeleben, Hastings, 1895 34 

12. Pillsbury— Tarrasch, Hastings, 1895 34 

13. Fleissig — Schlechter, Vienna, 1895 34 

14. Pillsbury — Lasker, St. Petersburg, 1896 34 

15. Lasker — Napier, Cambridge Springs, 1904 34 

16. Rotlewi — Rubinstein, Lodz, 1907 34 

17. Tarrasch — Lasker, World Championship Match, 

Dusseldorf, 1908 34 

18. Lasker — Janowski, World Championship Match, 1909 .... 34 

19. Marshall — Capablanca, Match, U.S.A. 1909 35 

20. Rubinstein — Lasker, St. Petersburg, 1909 35 

21. Tarrasch — Schlechter, Match, 1911 35 

22. Nimzovich — Tarrasch, St. Petersburg, 1911 35 

23. Rubinstein — Capablanca, San Sebastian, 1911 35 

24. Rubinstein — Spielmann, San Sebastian, 1912 35 

25. Lasker — Capablanca, St. Petersburg, 1914 35 

26. Janowski — Capablanca, New York, 1916 35 

27. Capablanca — Marshall, New York, 1918 35 

28. Lasker — Capablanca, World Championship Match, 

Havana, 1921 36 

29. Alekhine — Sterk, Budapest, 1921 36 

30. Bogolyubov — Alekine, Hastings, 1922 36 

31. Tarrasch — Alekhine, Pistyan, 1922 36 

32. Maroczy — Tartakower, Teplice Sanov, 1922 36 

33. Saemisch — Nimzovich, Copenhagen, 1923 36 

34. Reti — Lasker, New York, 1924 36 

35. Reti — Bogolyubov, New York, 1924 36 

36. Tartakower — Capablanca, New York, 1924 36 

37. Marshall — Bogolyubov, New York, 1924 37 

38. Reti — Alekhine, Baden-Baden, 1925 37 

39. Johner — Nimzovich, Dresden, 1926 37 

40. Nimzovich— Capablanca, New York, 1927 37 

41. Capablanca — Alekhine, World Championship Match, 

Buenos Aires, 1927 


37 



42. Capablanca — Alekhine, World Championship Match, 

Buenos Aires, 1927 37 

43. Sultan Khan — Menchik, Hastings, 1931-32 37 

44. Rauzer — Botvinnik, Leningrad, 1933 37 

45. Alekhine — Lasker, Zurich, 1934 37 

46. Lilienthal — Capablanca, Hastings, 1935 38 

47. Euwe — Alekhine, World Championship Match, 

Amsterdam, 1935 38 

48. Alekhine — Reshevsky, Nottingham, 1936 38 

49. Fine — Alekhine, Margate, 1937 38 

50. Botvinnik — Alekhine, Netherlands, 1938 38 

51. Botvinnik — Capablanca, Netherlands, 1938 38 

52. Keres — Capablanca, Netherlands, 1938 38 

53. Botvinnik — Kann, Leningrad, 1939 38 

54. Euwe — Keres, Netherlands, 1940 38 

55. Smyslov — Reshevsky, Radio Match, USA-USSR, 1939 39 

56. Euwe — Najdorf, Zurich, 1953 39 

57. Geller — Najdorf, Zurich, 1953 39 

58. Reshevsky — Bronstein, Zurich, 1953 39 

59. Botvinnik — Smyslov, World Championship Match, 

Moscow, 1954 39 

60. Botvinnik — Smyslov, World Championship Match, 

Moscow, 1954 39 

61. Donald Byrne — Fischer, New York, 1956 39 

62. Tal — Panno, Portoroz, 1958 39 

63. Tal — Smyslov, Bled, 1959 40 

64. Tal — Fischer, Zagreb, 1959 40 

65. Tal — Keres, Belgrade, 1959 40 

66. Botvinnik — Tall, World Championship Match, 

Moscow, 1960 40 

67. Geller — Korchnoi, USSR Championship, 1960 40 

68. Smyslov — Bilek, Sochi, 1963 40 

69. Petrosian — Botvinnik, World Championship Match, 

Moscow, 1963 40 

70. Robert Byrne — Fischer, New York, 1963-64 40 

71. Geller — Smyslov, Moscow, 1965 40 

72. Spassky — Petrosian, World Championship Match, 

Moscow, 1966 41 

73. Petrosian — Spassky, World Championship Match, 

Moscow, 1966 41 

74. Larsen — Petrosian, Santa Monica, 1966 41 

75. Keres — Portisch, Moscow, 1967 41 

76. Stein — Keres, Moscow, 1967 41 

77. Botvinnik — Portisch, Monte Carlo, 1968 41 

78. Smyslov — Liberzon, Riga, 1968 41 

79. Smyslov — Tal, Moscow, 1969 41 


Design Philosophy 

The design of the feature package for the SARGON III chess program was 
based on the assumption that you should be able to access any feature easily, 
but you should not have to concern yourself with features which are not 
of interest to you. To this end, the features are predominantly accessed by 
the use of control keys. 

Upon loading, SARGON III is ready to play a game of chess. The level is 
automatically set to SARGON's fastest response time (about five seconds 
per move), and SARGON assumes that you want to play with the White 
pieces. At this point, all you need to know to begin a game of chess with 
SARGON is how to enter your moves (see Section 1 — Playing Chess) 

Later on, you will want to learn about all of the innovative features which 
the SARGON III program has to offer. This manual need not be read from 
cover to cover, but rather can be sampled gradually as you expand your 
repertoire of commands. 


2 



SECTION I 
PLAYING CHESS 

Let's Play Chess 

Summary of the Official Rules of Chess reprinted with permission of the 
U.S. Chess Federation i 1978, 1983 U.S. Chess Federation. 

Chess is a game for two players, one with the "White" pieces and one with 
the "Black" — no matter what colors your set actually uses. At the beginning 
of the game, the pieces are set up as pictured below. 



A couple of hints will help you remember this setup: 

1. Opposing Kings and Queens go directly opposite each other. 

2. The square in the lower right corner is a "White" one ("White 
on right"). 

3. The White Queen goes on a light square, the Black Queen on 
a dark square ("Queen on color"). 

The main goal of chess is to checkmate your opponent's King. The King 
is not actually captured and removed from the board like other pieces. But 
if the King is attacked ("checked") and threatened with capture, he must 
get out of check immediately. If there is no way to get out of check, the 
position is a checkmate, and the side that is checkmated loses. 

We will look further at pieces and checkmates a little later. 


3 



The Pieces and How They Move 

White always moves first, and then the players take turns moving. Only one 
piece may be moved at each turn (except for "castling," a special move that 
is explained later). To capture or "take," move your piece to a square 
occupied by one of your opponent's pieces. The opponent's piece is then 
taken off the board, and your piece is left on that square. 

You don't have to make a possible capture unless it is the only legal move 
available. 

You cannot move a piece to a square already occupied by one of your own 
pieces. Except for Knights, pieces may move only along unblocked paths. 
Of course, they can capture or "take" the blocking piece if it is the 
opponent's. 



The King 

The King is the most important piece. When he is trapped, his whole army 
loses. 

The King can move one square in any direction — for example, to any of 
the shaded squares in this diagram. (The only exception is castling, which 
is explained later.) 

The King may never move into check — that is, into the line of fire of an 
opponent's piece. 


4 




The Queen 

The Queen is the most powerful piece. She can move any number of squares 
in any direction — horizontal, vertical, or diagonal — if her path is not 
blocked. She can reach any of the shaded squares in this diagram. 



The Rook 

The Rook is the next most powerful piece. 

The Rook can move any number of squares vertically or horizontally if its 
path is not blocked. 


5 






The Bishop 

The Bishop can move any number of squares diagonally if its path is not 
blocked. 

Note that this Bishop starts on a White square and can reach only other 
White squares. At the beginning of the game, you have one "dark-square" 
Bishop and one "light-square" Bishop. 



The Knight 

The Knight's move is special. It hops directly from its old square to its new 
square. The Knight cannot be blocked by other pieces between its old and 
new squares. 

You can think of the Knight's moves as an "L." It moves two squares 
horizontally or vertically and then makes a right-angle turn for one more 
square. The Knight always lands on a square opposite in color from the 
square it "hops" from. 

Any pieces "hopped over" are not captured by the Knight's move. The 
Knight can capture only when "landing" on the enemy piece. 


6 





The pawn moves straight ahead (never backward), but it captures or "takes" 
diagonally. It moves one square at a time, but on its first move it has the 
option of moving forward either one or two squares. (Historically, this option 
was introduced to speed up the game a little.) 

In the diagram above, the shaded squares indicate possible destinations 
for the pawns. The White pawn is on its original square, so it may move 
ahead either one or two squares. The Black pawn has already moved, so 
it can move ahead only one square now. 

The squares on which these pawns may capture are indicated by the 
asterisks. 

If a pawn advances all the way to the opposite end of the board, it is 
immediately "promoted" to another piece, usually a Queen. It cannot remain 
a pawn or become a King. Because of this rule, it is possible, for example, 
for each player to have more than one Queen or more than two Rooks, 
Bishops, or Knights on the board at the same time. 

As soon as a pawn is "promoted" it has all the powers of its new self. For 
example, a pawn may become a Queen that immediately "gives check" to 
the opponent's King. 


7 




Special Moves 

En Passant 

This French phrase is used for a special pawn capture. It means "in passing," 
and it occurs when one player moves a pawn two squares forward to try 
to avoid capture by the opponent's pawn. The capture is made exactly as 
if the player had moved the pawn only one square forward. 

In the diagram below, the Black pawn moves to the shaded square. On its 
turn the White pawn can capture the Black pawn by moving to the square 
marked with an asterisk. If the White player does not exercise this option 
immediately — before playing some other move — that Black pawn is safe from 
”en passant" capture for the rest of the game. But new opportunities arise 
with every other pawn in similar circumstances. 






Castling 

Once during a game, each player can "castle" if certain conditions are met. 
Castling is a special move that lets a player move two pieces at once — the 
King and one Rook. In castling, the King moves two squares to its left or 
right toward one of its Rooks. At the same time, the Rook involved goes 
to the square right beside the King and toward the center of the board. 

In order to castle, neither the King nor the Rook involved may have moved 
before. Also, the King cannot castle out of check, into check, or through 
check. Further, there cannot be pieces of either color between the King 
and the Rook involved in castling. 

Castling is often a very important move because it allows you to place your 
King in a safe location, and it also allows the Rook to become more active. 


8 



When the move is legal, each player has the choice of castling King-side 
or Queen-side or not at all, no matter what the other player chooses. 



Before Queenside Castling After Queenside Castling 


More About Check and Checkmate 

Now that you know how the pieces move, you can understand more about 
check and checkmate. Your opponent is trying to checkmate your King, 
and you must avoid this situation if possible. You cannot move into check — 
for example, move your King into a direct line with your opponent's Rook 
if there are no other pieces between the Rook and your King. Otherwise 
the Rook could "capture" the King, which is not allowed. 

If you are in check, there are three ways of getting out: 

1. Moving the King away from the attack. 

2. Capturing the attacking piece. 

3. Placing one of your own pieces between the attacker and 
your King. 

If a checked player can do none of these, the player is checkmated and 
loses the game. 

If a King is not in check, but that player can make no legal move, the position 
is called a stalemate and is scored as a draw or tie. 


9 




Some Hints to Get You Started 

Some pieces are more valuable than others, because they are able to control 
more squares on the board. Obviously, for example, a Queen is more 
valuable than a pawn. 

The question of value is important every time there is a possibility of 
capturing or exchanging pieces. Following is a guide to the value of the 
pieces other than the King: 

Pawn, 1 point • Knight, 3 points • Bishop, 3 points • Rook, 5 points • 

Queen, 9 points 

There are also some general principles that will help you to win games. 
After you practice for a few games, you will find that these hints are part 
of you, and that you do not have to work at remembering them. 

• Try to capture more valuable pieces than your opponent does. The 
player with stronger pieces has better winning chances. 

• Capture more valuable pieces with less valuable ones. 

• Don't try for a checkmate in the first few moves — it probably won't 
work. 

• Control the center. Move your center pawns early, but not the pawns 
on the side. 

• Move your Knights and Bishops early. 

• Castle early. 

• Pieces in the center have more mobility than pieces on the sides. 
(Look back at the Knight diagram and see how the White Knight 
has more possible moves than the Black one.) 

• Every time your opponent moves, stop and look carefully. Did he 
attack one of your pieces? Can you defend it or save it from capture? 
Did he make a move that allows you to capture something? 

• Your opponent has a plan, too! 

• It takes more than one piece to checkmate. 

Getting Better 

These basic rules and pointers are enough to get you started in chess. Now 
you are ready to find partners among the millions of chess lovers across 
the country and around the world. 

Practice will make you better and better at the game and so will reading 
some of the countless books about chess. You can probably find some of 
these books at your loCal library or bookstore. They will tell you lots about 
various winning strategies. 


10 



Another source for all your chess needs is the U.S. Chess Federation, a 
nonprofit educational and instructional corporation and the official 
organizing body for chess in this country. The U.S. Chess Federation 
publishes the monthly magazine Chess Life, containing news, instruction, 
and other articles about chess, including a monthly list of tournaments in 
which even beginners can play. 

The U.S. Chess Federation also offers a national rating system, postal chess 
competitions, and a mail-order department with a large selection of chess 
books and equipment. 

The last page of this guide is an offer to join the U.S. Chess Federation at 
a special introductory rate. 


Chess Notation 

The U.S. Chess Federation recognizes two forms of chess notation- 
algebraic and descriptive. Algebraic notation is named from its use of 
algebraic coordinates to name each square. 

The horizontal rows of squares (known as ranks) are lettered "a" through 
"h" from White's left to right. The vertical rows of squares (known as files) 
are numbered 1 through 8 from White's side of the board. Each square is 
named by cross-referencing the number and the letter. Thus, the black 
square in White s lower left-hand corner is ”al." The black square in Black's 
lower left-hand corner is “h8." 

To record a move in algebraic notation, all you need to know is the initial 
of the piece (except for pawns) and the square on which it lands. A variation 
of algebraic notation is used by SARGON III in which the piece itself is 
not named, but rather its initial location is given. Thus, moving the pawn 
in front of the King two squares forward, as a first move, would be written 
as 1. e4 in algebraic notation, but SARGON III would record the move as 
1. e2-e4. As a second move, moving the Queen from the c4 square to the 
e2 square would be written as 2. Qe2 in conventional algebraic, but as 2 
c4-e2 by SARGON III. 

SARGON III records castling and en passant captures in a more traditional 
format. Although a castle is entered in computer notation by naming the 
FROM and TO squares for the King, SARGON will record the move in 
traditional chess notation as "0-0" for King-side and as "0-0-0" for Queen- 
side. When a pawn is captured en passant, the move is entered in computer 
algebraic notation as the FROM and TO squares for the pawn. SARGON 
will represent this move in traditional chess notation as "PXPEP." The move 
which advances a pawn to the opposite end of the board will have the 
notation 7Q." If you would like to promote the pawn to a Queen, simply 
press RETURN. To promote the pawn to a different piece, enter the 
appropriate letter (N for Knight, R for Rook or B for Bishop) and press 
RETURN. 


11 


The TO and FROM squares of a move are usually separated by a hyphen. 
If a capture occurs during a move the hyphen will be replaced with an "X." 
To indicate that a move places the other side in check, SARGON III will 
record a plus sign after the move. 

Hardware Requirements 

Commodore 64 

To play SARGON III, you will need a Commodore 64 or 128 computer, 1541 
disk drive and TV (or monitor and 5-Pin Din audio cable.) A joystick is 
optional for entering moves. You will need a Commodore 1521 printer to 
use the printer options. 

Atari 

To play SARGON III, you will need an Atari 600XL, 800, 800XL, 65XE or 
135XE computer with at least 48K bytes of memory, one 810 or 1050 disk 
drive and a color monitor, monochrome monitor or TV. A joystick is optional 
for entering moves. You will need a compatible printer to use the printer 
option. 

Loading Instructions 

Commodore 64 

Make sure you computer and disk drive are turned OFF. Turn ON the disk 
drive. Turn ON the TV or monitor; then turn ON the computer. When the 
red error light on the disk drive goes out, open the drive door. Insert the 
SARGON III Commodore 64 program side of the disk with the SARGON 
III Commodore 64 label facing up. Close the drive door. (Note: It is 
important to turn the disk drive OFF and ON again before loading a new 
program.) When READY appears on the screen, type LOAD "*",8,1 and 
press RETURN. If the load is successful, the title screen will appear. 

Atari 

Remove all cartridges from the computer and make sure that the system 
is turned OFF. Turn ON the disk drive and insert the SARGON III Atari 
program side of the disk with the SARGON III Atari label facing up. Hold 
down the option key while turning ON the computer. (Note: If you are usin g 
an Atari 800 it is not necessary to hold down the OPTION key.) When 
SARGON III has finished loading and the color selection menu has 
appeared, remove the program disk and insert the SARGON III Atari 
opening book disk into the drive. After you have selected the screen colors 
for your game, press the START key to begin playing chess. 


12 



After a brief pause while the computer loads the SARGON III program from 
the disk, you will see the following screen display: 

SARGON I I I 

KATHE SPRACKLEN LEVEL 1 

(0 1984 HAYDEN SOFTWARE INC . 

PLAYER SARGON 

This display is referred to as the "text screen" of SARGON III, The screen 
will then display the actual chess board in high resolution graphics. 

To get back to the text screen, press the <- key (located on the upper left- 
hand side of the Commodore keyboard) or the ESC key (located on the upper 
left-hand side of the Atari keyboard). You may switch back and forth between 
the text screen and the graphics screen at any time during the operation 
of the program. Please note that after certain commands, such as Take Back 
or Replay, it may be necessary to press the <- key or ESC key twice to switch 
from the chess board to the move list. 

Game Messages 

The text screen will provide you with a running list of all the moves played 
in each game. This screen is also used to print messages such as “CHECK," 
"CHECKMATE," and "INVALID MOVE. TRY AGAIN." 

When you are viewing the graphics screen which contains the chess board, 
however, you will merely get an indication that the computer has written 
a message, rather than seeing the actual messages on the screen. The 
computer indicates that it has written a message by flashing the 
"message light" (the small hour-glass figure located in the lower 
right-hand corner of the screen.) This figure will flash to attract 
your attention each time a message is first printed. To see what the flashing 
figure looks like, press CTRL-N (request for a new game). At this point, 
you will also hear the disk drive make a brief whirring sound. 

Playing Chess with SARGON III 

SARGON III is ready for a game of chess the moment it finishes loading. 
It is automatically set on its lowest playing level (Level 1), and it assumes 
that you are going to play White (to change the playing level or color, see 
Section2 — Special Features). Since White always makes the first move, at 
this point SARGON III is waiting for you to enter your move. 

Moves can be entered by using the keyboard or a joystick. To enter moves 
with the keyboard, type in the FROM square, then a hyphen and then the 
TO square. Squares are typed in using the algebraic coordinates — first type 
in the letter from A-H, giving the rank; then type in the number from 1-8, 
specifying the file. 



BY DAN AND 
COPYRIGHT 


13 


For example, to move the King's pawn up two squares, type in E2-E4 and 
press the RETURN key to enter the move into the computer. If you are looking 
at the graphics screen, you will see the pawn flash on its original square; 
then it will flash on its destination square. If you are viewing the text screen, 
you will see the cursor move along with each character typed, and the cursor 
will disappear when the RETURN key is pressed. A pause will then follow, 
during which the text display will not change at all — this pause occurs 
because the computer is taking time to make its move on the graphics screen. 

Commodore 64 

If you would like to use a joystick to play SARGON III, plug your joystick 
into Port 2. When it is your turn and you are ready to move, push the button 
on the joystick. A box will appear around the King's square at the bottom 
of the screen. Move the box to the square containing the piece you would 
like to move. Push the button again. Now move the box to the square you 
would like to move the piece to and press the button once more. The piece 
will flicker and move to its new position. 

Atari 

If you would like to use a joystick to play SARGON III, plug your joystick 
into Port 1 of your Atari computer. When it is your turn and you are ready 
to move, push the button on the joystick. A flashing square will appear in 
the middle of the chess board. Move the flashing square to the piece you 
would like to move. Push the button again. Now move the flashing square 
to the square you would like to move the piece to and press the button once 
again. The piece will flicker and move to its new position. 

SARGON's Response 

As soon as you have entered your move and SARGON has displayed it, 
the program will sound a beep tone and will display its countermove. The 
move that SARGON makes will be chosen at random from its library of 
opening variations (see Section 2 — Special Features for a discussion of the 
opening book). 

To continue playing the game, simply enter your move each time it is your 
turn to play. At some point, SARGON will exhaust its opening library in 
the variation you are playing; the program will then begin thinking for itself. 
At Level 1, the level currently set, SARGON will take an average of about 
five seconds per move. If you play many moves from book, SARGON may 
take longer at first, since it has already saved up some time on the moves 
it has played automatically. 

While SARGON is thinking, an asterisk (*) will flash in the upper right- 
hand corner of the text screen. When SARGON has decided on a move, 
it will sound a beep tone and will display its move. The cursor will then 
flash to remind you to enter your next move. 


14 



Note that the asterisk does not stop flashing at this point- — this is because 
SARGON has already started thinking about the next move it will make. 
You can stop SARGON from thinking on your time by entering CTRL-E (see 
Section 2 — Special Features for a discussion of the Easy Mode). 

New Game 

In order to terminate the current game and begin a new one, press CTRL- 
N. SARGON will ask you to confirm your request with a Yes ("Y") or No 
(any key). If you enter "Y", the move list will be cleared, the cursor will 
be set to move 1, and the pieces will be restored to the their original locations 
on the graphics screen. 

Exiting the Program 

To get out of the chess program completely, enter CTRL-Q. SARGON will 
display the message "QUIT CHESS?" in the message area. To exit the 
program, enter "Y" for Yes. Entering any other key at this point (except the 
ESC or «- key) will return you to normal game play. Pressing the ESC or 
key will merely switch the screens from text to graphics, and SARGON 
will continue to wait for your answer. 

Commodore 64 

If you answer "Y" to the "QUIT CHESS?" inquiry, you will return to the 
READY prompt. At this point, you are ready to load another program. (See 
Loading Instructions, if you would like to load SARGON III again.) 

Atari 

If you answer "Y" to the "QUIT CHESS?" inquiry and the SARGON III Atari 
program disk is in the boot drive of you system, SARGON III will be 
rebooted. If you would like to boot another program, it is necessary to power 
down your system and restart with either the new application or standard 
Atari DOS. 

Other Features 

SARGON III has quite an exciting array of special features that may interest 
you. Some of the features you might want to learn about first include Level 
Select, Changing Sides with SARGON, Inverting the Board Display (Black 
on the bottom) and Taking Back Moves. Section 2 — Special Features contains 
a detailed explanation of each of these options. 


15 




SECTION 2 
SPECIAL FEATURES 


The features included in your SARGON III chess program have been 
designed to increase your enjoyment of the game. They are easy to use and 
clearly organized so that any feature may be easily accessed without 
complicated references to other feature selections. 

The features in this section are arranged according to function. You may 
want to skim through this section to see which features interest you most, 
and then later explore the others. Each feature is described independently 
of the rest. If you have read Section I — Playing Chess, the first two features 
listed below will already be familiar to you. 

1. NEW GAME (CTRL-N) 

In order to terminate the current game and start a new one, press 
CTRL-N. SARGON will ask you to confirm your request with a Yes 
("Y") or No (any key). If you enter "Y", the move list will be cleared, 
the cursor will be set to move 1, and the pieces will be restored to 
their original locations. 

2. EXITING THE PROGRAM (CTRL-Q) 

To get out of the chess program completely, enter CTRL-Q. SARGON 
will display the message "QUIT CHESS?" in the message area. To exit 
the program, enter ”Y" for Yes. Entering any other key at this point 
(except the ESC or «- key) will return you to normal game play. 
Pressing the ESC or <- key will merely switch the screen from text 
to graphics, and SARGON will continue to wait for your answer. 

Commodore 64 

If you answer "Y" to the "QUIT CHESS?" inquiry, you will return to 
the READY prompt. At this point, you are ready to load in another 
program. (See Loading Instructions if you would like to load SARGON 
III again.) 

Atari 

If you answer "Y" to the QUIT CHESS?" inquiry and the SARGON 
III Atari program disk is in the boot drive of your system, SARGON 
III will be rebooted. If you would like to boot another program, it is 
necessary to power down your system and restart with either the new 
application or standard Atari DOS. 


17 


3. LEVEL SELECT (SHIFT-1 to SHIFT-9) 

SARGON III has nine different levels of play. The levels increase in 
difficulty and in the amount of time taken per move. Levels may be 
selected or changed at any time during the game, as long as it is your 
turn to move. To select a level, press and hold the SHIFT key while 
you press down one of the number keys from 1 to 9. 

The levels and their average response times are shown in the following 
chart: 


LEVEL 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 
9 


AVERAGE 
RESPONSE TIME 

5 seconds per move 
15 seconds per move 
30 seconds per move 

1 minute per move 

2 minutes per move 

3 minutes per move 

6 minutes per move 
10 minutes per move 

Infinite Level 


ACTUAL 

TIME CONTROLS 

60 moves/5 minutes 
60 moves/15 minutes 
60 moves/30 minutes 
60 moves/1 hour 
30 moves/55 minutes 
40 moves/1 hr 50 min 
30 moves/3 hours 
40 moves/6 hrs 40 min 
No limit 


SARGON maintains a time "budget." For each level, there are a certain 
number of moves which must be made within a fixed time frame. If 
SARGON goes over the average time on any particular move, that 
time is subtracted from its budget and the remaining moves will be 
played more quickly. If SARGON gains time by playing moves from 
its opening library or thinking on your time, the time saved up is 
distributed over the remaining moves. SARGON can then take a little 
longer on those moves. 


INFINITE LEVEL (SHIFT-9) 

Level 9 is unlike any of the other levels. When this level is selected, 
SARGON has no time limit whatsoever for its moves. It will continue 
to think indefinitely, unless one of the following conditions occurs: 


1. The position is contained in SARGON's opening library. 

2. The move is forced, i.e., it is the only legal move in 
that position. 

3. SARGON sees a forced mate against itself or its 
opponent. 

4. SARGON's search is terminated (see Feature 4, 
Terminate Search). 


Because SARGON halts its search when mate is found, Level 9 is the 
ideal choice for solving mate problems. 


18 



4. TERMINATE SEARCH (CTRL-T) 

By entering CTRL-T, you may halt SARGON's search at any time while 
it is thinking about which move to make. SARGON will then play the 
best move it has found up to that point. Handy for the impatient player, 
this command is vital to the Infinite Search Level (see Feature 3), since 
it is one of the only ways SARGON will stop its search at that level. 
This feature is also convenient if you accidentally enter the wrong 
move and wish to take it back (see Feature 7, Taking Back Moves). 
By entering CTRL-T, you can stop SARGON's search at once, take 
back the error and continue playing. 

5. CHANGING SIDES WITH SARGON (CTRL-S) 

If you would like to play with the Black pieces and let SARGON play 
White, you must use the Changing Sides command, CTRL-S. If you 
enter CTRL-S at the start of a new game, SARGON will play the first 
move as White and you will be playing Black. 

If you enter CTRL-S during a game, SARGON will take over with your 
pieces where you left off, and you will have SARGON's pieces. You 
may change sides with SARGON at any point in the game, as long 
as it is your turn to move. You may also change sides as often as you 
wish. By entering CTRL-S after every move you can watch SARGON 
play against itself. 

6. INVERT BOARD (CTRL-I) 

When you play a game of chess with an actual chess set, you set up 
the board so that the pieces of your color are on the side of the board 
facing you. When you play chess with SARGON, you may accomplish 
this by placing the pieces of your color at the top of the display screen. 

To switch the color shown at the bottom of the screen, simply enter 
CTRL-I. The graphics screen will show the pieces in the opposite 
configuration, the message light will start flashing and the message 
area will indicate that the board has been inverted. Entering CTRL-I 
again will restore the pieces to their original position. 

Note that inverting the board display does not affect the color of the 
pieces you are playing — it merely affects the display. To actually 
change colors with SARGON, see Feature 5, Changing Sides with 
SARGON. 

You may reverse the board display as often as you like whenever it 
is your turn to move. You may even want to invert the board while you 
are considering which move to make so that you can see things from 
your opponent's point of view. 

7. TAKING BACK MOVES (CTRL-B) 

You may take back moves that have already been played in the game 
whenever it is your turn to move. Entering CTRL-B reverses the last 


19 


move played on the board, either a Black or a White move. If you have 
just taken back SARGON's last move, you may now: (a) request that 
SARGON reconsider its move, perhaps at a different search level 
(enter CTRL-S after entering CTRL-B to activate SARGON's search 
tree, but remember, SARGON might not change its mind); (b) 
substitute a move of your choice instead of the move that SARGON 
made (SARGON will accept your chosen move); or (c) continue taking 
back moves. If you have just taken back one of your own moves, you 
may make any move of your choice at this time, or you can continue 
taking back moves. 

You may take back as many moves as have been played in the game, 
all the way back to the initial position if so desired. If you have set 
up a position using Analysis Mode, you may take back all of the moves 
which have been played from that position (see Feature 18, Analysis 
Mode). 

When you take back moves, SARGON will automatically check to see 
if you have backed up to a position that is within its opening library. 
If so, the opening book will automatically be reconnected (see Feature 
20, The Opening Library). 

8. OFFER SUGGESTED MOVE (CTRL-O) 

If you would like SARGON to suggest a move for you to make, simply 
enter CTRL-O. A move suggestion will be available whenever the 
opening book is connected (see Feature 20, The Opening Library), 
and whenever SARGON has completed a move search. When the 
opening book is connected, SARGON's suggested move will be a move 
from the opening library. You can request an alternate move 
suggestion, and SARGON will select another move from the opening 
library if it has another move which it considers "good." The suggested 
move feature is available from Verify Mode as long as the position is 
in the opening book (see Feature 10, Verify Mode). 

When SARGON suggests a move for you to make after it has just 
completed a move search, the move it suggests is the response that 
its search has shown to be the strongest for you. Occasionally, at Level 
1, SARGON will not be able to offer a move suggestion even after 
completing a move search. If no move suggestion is available, this 
indicates that SARGON did not have time in its search to consider 
all of your possible replies to its move choice. However, in general, 
move suggestions will almost always be available at Level 2 and above, 
and they will sometimes be available at Level 1. 

SARGON will indicate its move suggestion by first flashing the piece 
to move and then flashing the square to which the piece should be 
moved. To accept the hint, simply enter the move as it is shown on 
the move list and press RETURN. To decline the hint, enter your own 
move choice. 


20 



9. EASY MODE (CTRL-E) 

The use of the Easy Mode with any level will weaken SARGON's play 
at that level. Using the Easy Mode effectively doubles the number of 
skill levels available to you. Normally, SARGON III uses the time you 
take to decide on a move to think about its own next move. Thus, if 
you have selected Level 1 (5 seconds per move for SARGON), but 
you take two minutes to decide on your next move, SARGON has used 
your two minutes to consider its next reply. You might as well have 
set it on Level 5! When Easy Mode is invoked, SARGON is blocked 
from using your move time to think about its response. 

When Easy Mode is in effect, the letter "E" appears after the level 
number. To cancel Easy Mode and return to the normal levels, enter 
CTRL-E again. The "E" will vanish, and SARGON will again be free 
to think on your time. 

10. VERIFY MODE (TWO PLAYERSKCTRL-V) 

The Verify Mode enables SARGON to act as a "referee" between two 
human players. SARGON checks each move for legality, maintains 
a move list, and can save or print the game that has been played (see 
Feature 14, Print List of Moves, and Feature 16, Save Game to Disk). 
To use Verify Mode, simply enter CTRL-V. Verify Mode can be 
cancelled by entering CTRL-V again. 

While in Verify Mode, SARGON III can suggest moves for you to make 
from its opening library (see Feature 8, Offer Suggested Move, and 
Feature 20, The Opening Library). To suggest a move, SARGON must 
first be allowed to make a move (CTRL-S) in order to activate it's search 
tree. If commanded to make the next move, SARGON will use the 
current level selected for this move. Once SARGON has moved, the 
two humans are back in control of the game. 

Verify Mode is especially handy for setting up a position which occurs 
near the beginning of the game of chess. Simply select Verfiy Mode, 
play the desired sequence of moves and then cancel Verify Mode. You 
are now ready to play chess from the chosen position. In addition, 
SARGON will follow along in its opening library as you play the 
moves; thus if the position is in its book, SARGON will be ready to 
play from book. 

11. ZAP BEEPER (CTRL-Z) 

Entering CTRL-Z will turn the beeper tone off. A second CTRL-Z will 
turn the tone back on again. This feature can be activated as many 
times as desired during a game. 


21 


12. DRAW OFFER (CTRL-D) 

SARGON will automatically announce draws by: 

STALEMATE 

REPETITION OF POSITION 
50-M0VE RULE 

In addition, you may offer SARGON a draw at any point in the game. 
For SARGON to be able to reply, it must have just completed a search. 
Therefore, if you have just taken back a move (see Feature 7, Taking 
Back Moves), or if you have just set up a position for play (see Feature 
18, Analysis Mode), SARGON will have no basis upon which to decide 
whether or not to accept your offer. In such cases, the program will 
automatically decline the draw offer. 

13. REPLAY GAME (CTRL-R) 

This option allows you to review the current game in memory. The 
board is initially set up as it would be for a new game, and SARGON 
will await your input. The following keystrokes are defined 
for this mode: 

RETURN — SARGON will display the next move that was 
played in the game. 

ESC or — Switches back and forth between the move list 
<- and the chess board. 

CTRL-F — Cancels Replay Mode and moves you forward 
in the game to the last move played. 

CTRL-X — Cancels Replay Mode and leaves you in the 
current position 

CTRL-N — Cancels Replay Mode and starts a new game. 
CTRL-I — Invert Board (see Feature 6, Invert Board). 

While Replay Mode is in effect, SARGON will print the letter "R" in 
place of the Level Number. It is necessary to quit Replay Mode to 
access certain program features. For example, if you would like to 
print out the game you have replayed, you would enter CTRL-X to 
exit Replay Mode and then enter CTRL-P to print out the move list. 

14. PRINT LIST OF MOVES (CTRL-P) 

Using the Print List option will enable you to print a listing of all the 
moves of the game currently in memory. In addition, if the game began 
from a position set up in Analysis Mode (see Feature 18,) SARGON 
will first print the starting position, and will then go on to print the 
move list. To make sure your printer is on and on-line, you will be 
prompted with “PRINTER ON?" immediately after entering CTRL-P. 
Press “Y" for Yes to get a printout, or press any other key to abort the 
procedure. 


22 



15. WRITE BOARD TO PRINTER (CTRL-W) 

Entering CTRL-W will cause SARGON to print the current board 
position. To make sure your printer is on and on-line, you will be 
prompted with "PRINTER ON?" immediately after entering CTRL-W. 
Press "Y" for Yes to get the board printout, or press any other key to 
abort the procedure. 

16. SAVE GAME TO DISK (CTRL-G) 

Commodore 64 

Entering CTRL-G allows you to store the current game in memory 
onto a floppy disk. Any normal 1541 formatted disk will be adequate 
for this purpose, provided there is space available on the disk and 
that it is not write-protected. To format a disk, insert the DOS disk 
into the disk drive and close the door. Type the following: 

OPEN 15,8,15, 1 ' N : d i s k title, disk number' 1 
CLOSE 15 

The disk title may be any name you want to label the disk. Refer to 
your Commodore 64 manual for legal names. The disk number may 
be any two digit integer. For example: 

OPEN 15,8,15, ' 1 N : SARGON GAMES, 64' ' 

C LOSE 1 5 

When the disk drive light goes off, the disk has been formatted. A 
game requires only three sectors of free space, so 144 games can be 
stored on a single disk. 

When CTRL-G is entered, the screen will be cleared and the following 
message will appear: 

SAVE GAME TO DISK 
ENTER NAME OF GAME 

At this point, you may enter a game identification name, a catalog 
request or a command to abort the save. A game name may be from 
1 to 14 characters in length. Any letter, number or the minus sign 
may appear anywhere in the name. When the file is saved to disk, 
the name you typed in will be preceded by a "G". The following are 
examples of legal game names: 

1-24-85 
I LOST THAT ONE 
FIRST GAME 

If you type in a name for your game that is longer than 14 characters, 
the name will be truncated to 14 characters. 


23 



After entering the name of the game to be saved, you will be prompted 
to remove the chess program disk and insert the disk on which you 
would like to store the game. After the save function has been 
completed, you will again be prompted to switch disks. When the 
SARGON III Commodore 64 program disk is back in place, you will 
be returned to the game at the forward-most position that was reached. 

A catalog request will list the games saved to disk. Enter CATALOG 
followed by RETURN. You will be prompted to insert the disk which 
you want to catalog. 

It is also possible to abort the save and return to the current game. 
To do this, simply enter a RETURN without specifying a file name. 

Atari 

Entering CTRL-G allows you to store the current game in memory 
onto a floppy disk. Any normal DOS 2.0 formatted disk will be 
adequate for this purpose, provided there is space available on the 
disk and the disk is not write-protected. See your Atari DOS Users 
Manual for instructions on formatting a blank disk. You may save as 
many as 64 games to this disk. 

When CTRL-G is entered, the screen will be cleared and the following 
message will appear: 

SAVE GAME INSERT GAMES DISK 
ENTER NAME OF GAME 
D 1 : 

At this point, you may enter a game name, a directory request or a 
command to abort the save. A game name may be from 1 to 8 
characters in length. Any letter or number may be used in the name, 
but the name must begin with a letter. 

SARGON III initially assumes that you are using a single disk drive 
and displays "Dl:". If you would like to save games to a second disk 
drive, use the Delete key to backspace over the "Dl:" and type "D2:" 
in its place. You may specify as many as 4 disk drives by indicating 
the number in this manner. 

After entering the name of the game to be saved, insert the disk on 
which you would like to store the game and press RETURN. After the 
save function has been completed, you will be prompted to reinsert 
the opening book disk if you are using a single-drive system. When 
the opening library disk is back in place, you will be returned to the 
game at the forward-most position that was reached. 

A directory request will list all of the games saved to disk. Enter DIR 
followed by RETURN. A list of games stored on the disk in the drive 
you have indicated will appear. If the list of games is longer than a 
single screen, use the RETURN key to stop and restart scrolling. 


24 



It is also possible to abort the save and return to the current game. 
To do this, simply enter a RETURN without specifying a game name. 
You will be prompted to reinsert the opeing book disk if necessary. 

17. LOAD GAME FROM DISK (CTRL-L) 

Commodore 64 

This command allows you to retrieve a game previously stored on disk. 
The Load command is invoked by entering a CTRL-L. The screen will 
be cleared, and the following message will appear: 

LOAD GAME FROM DISK 
ENTER NAME OF GAME 

At this point, you may request a catalog to review the contents of the 
disk by entering the CATALOG command, abort the load by hitting 
RETURN without specifying a file name or enter the name of a game. 
If you type in a name for your game that is longer than 14 characters, 
the name will be truncated to 14 characters. 

After entering the name of the game, you will be prompted to remove 
the SARGON III Commodore 64 disk and insert the disk from which 
you would like to load the game. After the load function has been 
completed, you will again be prompted to switch disks. Failure to 
reinsert the SARGON III Commodore 64 disk into the drive will cause 
the opening library to be cancelled, just as if you had entered CTRL- 
Y (see Feature 21, Cancel Opening Library). 

Once the game is loaded, SARGON assumes that you want to replay 
the game, and thus the program automatically transfers you to Replay 
Mode (see Feature 13, Replay Game). If you would rather resume play 
from the final position, entering CTRL-F at this point will bring you 
to the last move of the stored game and exit Replay Mode. 

Atari 

This command is invoked by entering a CTRL-L. The screen will be 
cleared and the following message will appear: 

Load Game INSERT GAMES DISK 
ENTER GAME NAME 
D 1 

At this point, you may request a directory to review the contents of 
the disk by entering the drive letter and number followed by the DIR 
command, abort the load by hitting RETURN without specifying a 
game name or enter the name of the game followed by RETURN. 


25 



After entering the name of the game to be loaded, you will be 
prompted to reinsert the opening book disk if you are using a single- 
drive system. Failure to reinsert the opening book disk will cause the 
opening library to be cancelled, just as if you had entered CTRL-Y 
(see Feature 21, Cancel Opening Library). 

Once the game is loaded, SARGON assumes that you want to replay 
the game, and thus the program automatically transfers you to Replay 
Mode (see Feature 13, Replay Game). If you would rather play from 
the final position, entering CTRL-F at this point will bring you to the 
last move of the stored game and exit Replay Mode. 

18. ANALYSIS MODE (CHANGE BOARD) (CTRL-A) 

Analysis Mode allows you to change the position on the current game 
board or to set up an entirely new position. When CTRL-A is entered, 
the display automatically switches to the graphics screen, and the 
current board position is shown with the square in the lower left-hand 
corner of the display flashing continuously. The flashing square acts 
as a cursor. The cursor can be moved left and right, up and down, 
by the following keys: 

KEY CURSOR DIRECTION 


C64 

Atari 


CRSR-* 

CTRL-* 

Moves the cursor to the right 

CRSR<- 

CTRL<- 

Moves the cursor to the left 

CRSRT 

CTRLT 

Moves the cursor up 

CRSRI 

CTRL! 

Moves the cursor down 


The cursor will wrap around the edge of the board and return on the 
other side. The square that the cursor rests on is the square that is 
subject to change at that moment. The possibilities are: 

KEY FUNCTION 

K Places a King of the default color on the square. 

Q Places a Queen of the default color on the square. 

R Places a Rook of the default color on the square. 

B Places a Bishop of the default color on the square. 

N Places a Knight of the default color on the square. 

P Places a Pawn of the default color on the square. 

C or Changes the default color (which is initially White). 

CTRL-C If the square is occupied, the piece on that square 

takes on the new default color. 

SPACE BAR Clears the square. 

RETURN Exits from Analysis Mode and returns to normal 
game play. 

Analysis Mode does some error checking of the position before it exits. 
If you set up a position with two Queens, for example, but you also 
include all eight pawns, SARGON will remove one of the Queens or 

26 



one of the pawns. Exactly which piece SARGON will take off the board 
depends upon the position. Pieces on their starting squares will always 
stay on the board, and other pieces are assigned from the center out. 
If the position you set up is missing one or both Kings, SARGON will 
announce "STALEMATE." If you set up a position that is logically 
impossible, SARGON will not always be able to respond. 

SARGON always assumes that a King or Rook on its original square 
has never moved, and assigns castle status accordingly. When you 
exit Analysis Mode, both the color to move and the playing level 
remain the same as they were when you entered this mode. If desired, 
the color to move can always be changed using the Change Color 
command (see Feature 19). 

19. CHANGE COLOR WITH THE MOVE 

(CTRL-C) 

In the game of chess, moves are made in turn. White plays first, then 
Black, then White again. No side may "pass" its turn to move, even 
if it is unfavorable to play. (If one side is forced into a disadvantageous 
situation because of the obligation to move, chess players say the 
player is caught in "zugzwang," a German word which literally means 
"forced move.") SARGON III gives you the opportunity to change the 
color with the move. This is, of course, cheating; however, the Change 
Color with the Move command has the legitimate function of letting 
you specify the side whose turn it is to play after setting up a position 
using Analysis Mode (see Feature 18). 

When you enter CTRL-C, SARGON assumes that you still want 
control, so it does not begin to think; instead, it also switches sides 
with you, so that it is still your turn. If you want SARGON to keep 
its original color and play the next move, enter CTRL-S to change 
sides with SARGON (see Feature 5, Changing Sides with SARGON). 

20. THE OPENING LIBRARY 

The opening library is a collection of Grand Master moves, beginning 
from the starting position of a game of chess and proceeding along 
variations that have been deeply analyzed. 

The SARGON III chess program has an opening library of over 68,000 
different positions. This is by far the largest collection of opening 
moves ever supplied with a commercial chess program, and it samples 
the entire range of opening possibilities. 

The opening library functions automatically, as long as the SARGON 
III Commodore 64 or the Sargon III Opening Book (Atari) disk is in 
the boot drive of your system. The program looks for information on 
this disk at several points during the game, so it is imperative that 
you keep the program disk in place throughout the game (unless you 
are saving a game to a disk or loading a game from a disk). 


27 



21. CANCEL OPENING LIBRARY (CRTL-Y) 

Entering CTRL-Y will disable the opening library, thereby forcing 
SARGON to think for itself from the first move of the game or from 
the point in the game when the command was issued. 

22. WINDOW ON THE SEARCH (CTRL-I) 

When you enter CTRL-J, you will have the opportunity to watch 
SARGON's move search in action. As long as SARGON remains in 
its opening book, the display will remain the same. However, once 
SARGON starts thinking on its own, this display comes alive. The 
right-hand side of the display shows what is happening in the current 
search. The depth shows how many ply (half-moves) it has looked 
ahead, and the score shows how well it thinks it is doing. A positive 
number indicates that SARGON thinks it is ahead; a negative number 
indicates that SARGON is behind. The scores are relative to a pawn 
being worth 100 points. Therefore, score values in the range of +99 
to -99 usually indicate positional factors; and scores of over 100 
usually mean that material has been won or lost. A checkmate score 
is +9999. If mate has been foreseen, but has not yet occurred, the 
number will be reduced slightly, according to how far off the mate is. 

In order for you to see the rest of the display, SARGON must actually 
be thinking. To see an example of this, do the following: Enter CTRL- 
Y to cancel the opening book, enter SHIFT-9 to put SARGON on the 
Infinite Level, and enter CTRL-S to change sides with SARGON. You 
will notice that suddenly moves will begin to appear in the two columns 
on the right-hand half of the search window. 

The column on the far right will be changing rapidly — here you are 
watching SARGON going up and down the search tree, examining 
moves. The column will grow and shrink in length, sometimes reaching 
many times the number shown as the Current Depth. This is the 
capture search in action. SARGON will not rest and evaluate any 
position unless it has first resolved any captures possible and reached 
a calm, quiescent position. 

The column just to the left of that column is less active. Every now 
and then a new line appears. This column represents the best line 
that SARGON has found so far in its search. If you were to enter 
CTRL-T to terminate SARGON's search at a particular point, the move 
that heads this column would be the move the SARGON would play. 
The second move on this list would be SARGON's suggested move 
for you. From this, you can see that the suggested moves are not quite 
so deeply searched as the move that SARGON itself chose. It follows, 
then, that if you were to play nothing but the suggested moves, you 
would probably lose. 


28 



Now enter CTRL-T to stop the search. You will notice that the moves 
from the best line column have been copied over to the left-hand side 
of the screen. The Previous Depth that is now shown on the left-hand 
side is the depth that SARGON had reached when you entered the 
CTRL-T; and the Score now shown is the score which SARGON had 
computed up to the point when you entered CTRL-T. 

The left-hand column of the screen is stable. It shows you the results 
of the previous search. All of the moves that SARGON has been able 
to foresee are listed there (up to a maximum of 9 ply). The other two 
columns are busily at work, since SARGON has assumed that you will 
make the suggested move and is already thinking about its response. 

To exit from the search display, press the ESC or <- key. This will put 
you back into the normal chess program. 

CAUTION: Using the Window on the Search feature will slow the 
program down by about 5 to 10% while the window display is on the 
screen. As soon as you switch back to the game screen, the program 
will resume normal speed. 

23. CHANGE DISPLAY COLOR 

This option allows you to change the visual colors of the board squares, 
the pieces and any text on the screen. The term "visual" is emphasized 
since the visual color has no effect on the play. For example, no matter 
what the visual color may be, the pieces located at the top of the screen 
when the board is not inverted will always be the dark pieces. Visual 
color changes are designed to allow for differences in monitors and 
televisions. 

Commodore 64 

The following functions keys (located on the right-hand side of the 
keyboard) are used to cycle through the 16 colors available on the 
Commodore 64: 

FI Changes the dark squares 

F2 Changes the light squares 

F3 Changes the dark pieces 

F4 Changes the light pieces 

F5 Changes the border color 

F6 Changes the text color 

F7 Changes the background color of the text screen 
F8 Changes the text color of the text screen 

Note: The SHIFT key is used to access the even-numbered function 
keys. 


29 



Atari 

SARGON III automatically boots to the color selection menu so that 
you can choose the screen colors for your game before you begin 
playing chess. However, if you would like to change screen colors 
after you have begun playing SARGON III, the following keys will 
cycle through the colors available on the Atari: 

S Changes the light squares 

T Changes the dark squares 

U Changes the light pieces 

V Changes the dark pieces 

W Changes the border color of the text screen 

Y Changes the text color of the text screen 

Z Changes the background color of the text screen 


30 



SECTION 3 
GREAT GAMES 

The following 107 historical chess games were selected and briefly 
described by the American chess master Boris Baczynskyj. They are 
contained on the Great Games and Chess Problems disk in your SARGON 
III package. Each game can be retrieved from the disk and reviewed move- 
by-move to show you how master chess champions played some of their finest 
games. 

Commodore 64 

To access the Great Games, use the Load command (CTRL-L, Feature 17). 
After entering CTRL-L, the screen will be cleared and the following message 
will appear: 


LOAD GAME FROM DISK 
ENTER NAME OF GAME 

Remove the SARGON III Commodore 64 disk. Insert the disk with the Great 
Games and Chess Problems Commodore 64 label facing you. 

At this point, you may request a catalog to review the contents of the Great 
Games and Chess Problems disk by entering the CATALOG command, 
abort the load by hitting RETURN without specifying a file name or enter 
a file name. As you will notice all of the Great Games file names are in 
the following format: 


GAME102 

The number is the same as in the description below and there is no space 
between the word "GAME" and the number. 

Once the game has been loaded into memory, you will be prompted to 
reinsert the SARGON III Commodore 64 program disk. 

Atari 

To access the Great Games, use the Load command. After entering CTRL- 
L, the screen will clear and the following message will appear: 

Load Game INSERT GAMES DISK 
ENTER GAME NAME 
D1 

If you are using a single-drive system, remove the opening book disk and 
insert the Atari side of the Great Games and Chess Problems disk with the 
label facing you. If you are using a multiple-drive system, use the Delete 
key to backspace over the ”D1:" and type "D2:" in its place. You may specify 
as many as 4 disk drives by indicating the number in this manner. 


31 



At this point, you can request a directory to review the contents of the Great 
Games and Chess Problems disk by entering the drive letter and number 
followed by the DIR command, abort the load by hitting RETURN without 
specifying a file name or enter a file name. 

As you will notice, all of the Great Games file names have a number that 
corresponds to their description below and are listed in the following 4 
character format: 


G005 or G055 or G105 

Since you are reviewing a game, SARGON III assumes that you want to 
be in Replay Mode (see Feature 13, Replay Game). Use the RETURN key 
to see each move of the game. The command CTRL-N will cancel Replay 
Mode and begin a new game. 


32 



1. Anderssen — Kieseritsky, London, 1851. 

The Immortal Game— it is the most renowned sonnet from the Romantic 
Age of chess. Anderssen sacrifices half a boxful of his pieces, then finishes 
Black off with a pretty mate. 

2. Anderssen — Dufresne, Berlin, 1852. 

"The Evergreen Game— the final Queen sacrifice deflects the Black King 
to a square where it will be subject to a fatal check. But, did Black have 
a more effective move at his 19th turn? Dispute on this point continued well 
into the 20th century. 

3. Paulsen — Morphy, New York, 1857. 

White allows Black to blockade his development with 12. . .Qd3, then 
overlooks the necessity of playing 16. . .Qa6. A move later, it is too late, 
and Morphy unleashes one of his famous combinations. 

4. Schuiten - Morphy, New York, 1857. 

Morphy sacrifices a couple of pawns to open lines for his better-developed 
pieces. Instead of returning some material in the interest of mobilization. 
Black greedily holds onto it. The punishment is swift. 

5. Morphy — Duke of Brauschweig and Count Isouard, Paris, 1858. 

This game was played in the European nobles' loge during a performance 
of "The Barber of Seville." The American pounces on the amateur's neglect 
of development: a few final hammer blows and the Black King's coffin is 
closed while he is still on his original square. 

6. Morphy — Lowenthal, London, 1858. 

The American genius offers a Queen-side pawn at the altar of initiative, 
then advances his King-side pawns to rip apart Black's King position. After 
White's 33rd move, Black is in "zugzwang" — any move he makes loses 
something. 

7. Englisch — Steinitz, London, 1863. 

Not a spectacular game, but a methodical demonstration of play with the 
two Bishops. At the end, Steinitz exchanges into a precisely calculated won 
pawn ending. 

8. Anderssen — Steinitz, London, 1866. 

An intense struggle with many twists and turns. Finally, Steinitz achieves 
a pawn-up ending, but his winning chances are problematic until White 
misplaces his Knight on the 51st move. 

9. Zuckertort — Blackburne, London, 1883. 

White's cascade of unexpected shots from move 23 until the game's end, 
ten moves later, was labeled by Steinitz as "one of the greatest combinations, 
possibly even the most beautiful of all that have been created on the chess 
board." 


33 


10. Chigorin — Steinitz, Havana, 1892. 

The brilliant, and tragic, Father of Russian Chess produces a crush in his 
romantic fashion. Typically, instead of the straightforward (and strong) 19.a5, 
Chigorin plays the much more complicated, and riskier sacrifice 19.Nf7. 

11. Steinitz — von Bardeleben, Hastings, 1895. 

Steinitz catches Black's King in the center, then sacrifices a pawn at d5 
so that his Knight can advance into the heart of Black's position. Black never 
resigned at the game's end; he just left the playing hall while Steinitz 
demonstrated the forced win. 

12. Pillsbury— Tarrasch, Hastings, 1895. 

Tarrasch called Pillsbury "a meteor of the chess sky." White's dynamic play 
here did much to popularize the Queen's Gambit for years to come. 

13. Fleissig — Schlechter, Vienna, 1895. 

A brilliancy by the Austrian player who came very close to dethroning 
Lasker as World Champion in a 1910 match. Black sacrifices material 
repeatedly, then crowns his effort with an artistic checkmate. 

14. Pillsbury -Lasker, St. Petersburg, 1896. 

The game that Lasker considered the best of his long and glorious career. 
The combinational attack on the King initiated by Black's 17th move is one 
of the prettiest in chess heritage. 

15. Lasker — Napier, Cambridge Springs, 1904. 

A taut and complex game in which one tactical shot follows another. The 
complications do not stop until move 28 when White emerges with a 
positional advantage which he soon converts into a pawn. 

16. Rotlewi — Rubinstein, Lodz, 1907. 

A nova that will blind for as long as the game of chess is played. Rubinstein 
explodes with a precisely calculated combination in which every one of 
his pieces plays a part. 

17. Tarrasch — Lasker, World Championship Match, Dusseldorf, 1908. 

Facing the doctrinaire Doctor, Lasker launches his Rook on an unorthodox 
cruise, during which it is in danger of being trapped. Such a sally must 
have irked Tarrasch, but the Rook survived, and Black won the point. 

18. Lasker— Janowski, World Championship Match, 1909. 

The temperamental challenger outplays the World Champion Lasker. 
White's fatal mistake is the weakening of the King's position with his 44th 
pawn move. 


34 


19. Marshall — Capablanca, Match, U.S.A., 1909. 

Not a complex game, but a fine demonstration of purposeful vs. planless 
play. Capablanca obtains a Queen-side pawn majority. While White shuffles 
to and fro, the great Cuban's moves all fit into a mosaic that produces a 
passed pawn and victory. 

20. Rubinstein — Lasker, St. Petersburg, 1909. 

Rubinstein sees just a move further than the World Champion to win a pawn, 
then plays an exemplary Rook-and-pawn ending. 

21. Tarrasch — Schlecter, Match, 1911. 

White, whose books taught generations of chess players, sacrifices a pawn 
for the initiative. Then he launches a tightly-calculated pawn storm of his 
opponent's King position. 

22. Nimzovich-Tarrasch, St. Petersburg, 1911. 

Tarrasch demonstrates the strength of "hanging pawns" when backed up 
by superior mobility: one of them advances at the proper moment as a 
prelude to a double Bishop sacrifice, denuding White's King of pawn cover. 

23. Rubinstein — Capablanca, San Sebastian, 1911. 

Capablanca misplays the opening, and White secures a positional edge. 
Soon, a sparkling combination converts in into a pawn. 

24. Rubinstein — Spielmann, San Sebastian, 1912. 

Spielmann, the Theoretician of Sacrifices, offers a whole Rook to drive 
White's King into the open. To avoid a quick death, White is forced to give 
back the material. Then Black transposes into a won King and pawn 
endgame. 

25. Lasker — Capablanca, St. Petersburg, 1914. 

Lasker chooses the apparently unpretentious Exchange Variation of the Ruy 
Lopez. Gradually, White gains a space advantage, and posts his Knight 
at e6. The inevitable breakthrough follows, and White's pieces infiltrate into 
Black's camp. 

26. Janowski — Capablanca, New York, 1916. 

Handed the open a-file and the two Bishops, Capablanca squeezes the life 
out of White's position in textbook fashion. 

27. Capablanca — Marshall, New York, 1918. 

The game in which Marshall introduced his gambit against the Ruy Lopez. 
Although surprised, White calculates his way past all the torpedoes hidden 
in the position until his ship is able to fire a few — now decisive — shots back. 


28. Lasker — Capablanca, World Championship Match. Havana, 1921. 

One of Capablanca's victories in wresting the World Title from Lasker. The 
new World Champion described the game as "one of my best achievements, 
in a battle with one of the strongest chess players of all peoples and all times." 

29. Alekhine — Sterk, Budapest, 1921. 

After Black's pieces get tied down on the Queen-side, Alekhine lands several 
sudden blows to produce a decision on the other side — where the King is. 

30. Bogolyubov— Alekhine, Hastings, 1922. 

A "full-board," epic struggle crowned by Black's two original queening 
combinations — one initiated on the 30th move, and the other — an echo — 
on the 47th. 

31. Tarrasch— Alekhine, Pistyan, 1922. 

Black sacrifices a pawn in the opening for a dominant central position, then 
lets go with everything heading toward White's King. Like many of 
Alekhine's attacking efforts, this one won the tournament brilliancy prize. 

32. Maroczy — Tartakower, Teplice Sanov, 1922. 

Black makes an intuitive Rook sacrifice on his 17th turn. Only then does 
he finish his development to reinforce his attack. Although White has the 
time, he cannot find the means to construct a defense. 

33. Saemisch — Nimzovich, Copenhagen, 1923. 

Nimzovich's immortal Zugzwang Game. At the game's conclusion, White 
is a piece up, but a move by any piece will lead to material loss. So, he 
resigns. 

34. Reti — Lasker, New York, 1924. 

Played in the most famous tournament ever held on American soil, this game 
illustrates a fascinating clash of approaches to central control: Black's 
classical pawn center is countered by White's "hyper-modern" set-up of 
impinging on the center with pieces parked inside one's camp. Here, Lasker, 
and the older view, triumph. 

35. Reti — Bogolyubov, New York, 1924. 

Black chooses an inferior system against White's Reti Opening played by 
the author. The final, sparkling White move lays bare Black's back rank 
weakness. 

36. Tartakower — Capablanca, New York, 1924. 

Tartakower did not lack a sense of humor: he played an obscure variation 
of the King's Gambit against the World Champion. The advantage became 
Black's on the 9th move; the game is crowned with an irrefutable attack 
against the exposed White King. 


36 



37. Marshall — Bogolyubov, New York, 1924. 

Marshall, the great tactician who was U.S. Champion for many years, earned 
a brilliancy prize for this game. 

38. Reti— Alekhine, Baden-Baden, 1925. 

Alekhine, whose games included more beautiful combinations than those 
of any other player, considered this his best combination. Indeed, the attack 
initiated by Black's startling 26th move does not let up until White, faced 
<f with the loss of a piece, resigns. 

39. Johner — Nimzovich, Dresden, 1926. 

« Nimzovich sets up his defense to the Queen's pawn opening, and saddles 

White with doubled pawns. Then he provides an excellent example of his 
blockade. Note Black's piquant Queen maneuver to h7, and the manner 
in which he limits all possible White pawn advances. 

40. Nimzovich -Capablanca, New York, 1927. 

White exchanges pieces, angling for a draw. But White's pawn position has 
a few holes in it, and Black sends his pieces through them. 

41. Capablanca— Alekhine, World Championship Match, 

Buenos Aires, 1927. 

Capablanca's best achievement in the marathon match which ended with 
him stripped of the world crown by the Russian challenger. 

42. Capablanca— Alekhine, World Championship Match, 

Buenos Aires, 1927. 

Black does not equalize until his 28th turn. But then Capablanca, still 
dreaming of an edge, over-presses and lands in an inferior heavy piece 
ending. The concluding phase of the game is technically difficult, but 
Alekhine meets the challenge. 

43. Sultan Khan-Menchik, Hastings, 1931-32. 

A win by the first Women's World Champion. Castling is on opposite wings, 
and Black comes in with her attack before White even has a chance to start 
* his. 

44. Rauzer — Botvinnik, Leningrad, 1933. 

, Ignoring the attack on his Bishop, Black executes the thematic Sicilian 

Defense thrust d6-d5, then follows up with a slashing onslaught on White's 
King. 

45. Alekhine — Lasker, Zurich, 1934. 

The great Russian champion produces a textbook example of how to use 
superior mobility and central predominance to force weaknesses in the 
opponent s position as a prelude to a decisive attack. 


37 


46. Lilienthal — Capablanca, Hastings, 1935. 

A brilliant Queen sacrifice vs. the great Capablanca: it forces open the 
e-file as an avenue of attack against the Black King stuck in the center. 

47. Euwe— Alekhine, World Championship Match, Amsterdam, 1935. 

One of Euwe's victories in the match which made him World Champion. 
White gains an advantage in the opening, then transposes into an ending 
in which he has the edge because of a passed pawn and the two Bishops. 

48. Alekhine — Reshevsky, Nottingham, 1936. 

Reshevsky, who for half a century was at, or close to, the top of American 
chess, blunts Alekhine's attacking attempts, then outplays him in an ending. 

49. Fine— Alekhine, Margate, 1937. 

Fine, one of the best America produced, obtains a positional pull against 
Alekhine. As he is preparing to exploit it with a Queen-side attack, Black 
weakens his own position, winding up material down. A long endgame 
follows, but it is very one-sided. 

50. Bot vinnik — Alekhine, Netherlands, 1938. 

The pawn position becomes symmetrical on move 11. But White has absolute 
control of the open c-file. Botvinnik converts that advantage into a couple 
of pawns that decide the endgame. 

51. Botvinnik— Capablanca, Netherlands, 1938. 

Botvinnik's most renowned game. With iron logic, even at the cost of a pawn, 
White sticks to his plan of a pawn advance in the center. Eventually, he 
obtains a passed pawn, then sacrifices a Bishop to deflect the Queen 
blocking its advance. When he made the piece offer, White had to calculate 
that, at the end, his exposed King could escape perpetual check. 

52. Keres — Capablanca, Netherlands, 1938. 

The young Keres out-combines Capablanca. The threat of a deadly King- 
side attack forces a two-pawn-plus endgame. 

53. Botvinnik — Kann, Leningrad, 1939. 

One of Botvinnik's many exemplary games which showed the chess world 
how to treat a particular opening system. Here, White aims to occupy Black's 
weak d5-square; the Bishop that lands there dominates the rest of the game. 

54. Euwe — Keres, Netherlands, 1940. 

Keres sacrifices a Queen and pawn for Rook and Bishop. Note the power 
of Blacks Bishops at the game's end as they converge on White's King. 


38 



55. Smyslov -Reshevsky. Radio Match, USA-USSR, 1945. 

This game illustrates the thoroughness of the opening preparation 
championed by Soviet players. White was familiar with the long forced 
opening sequence, while Black had to consume time to work out the moves 
over the board. An unusual material balance results; Smyslov's Rook and 
two Bishops triumph over the American player's Queen and pawns. 

56. Euwe — Najdorf , Zurich, 1953. 

4 A real melee in which material balance means little, but the initiative is 

paramount. 

57. Geller — Najdorf , Zurich, 1953. 

* 

Geller provides a textbook demonstration of how a key strong square in 
the center can dominate a game. On move 19, White conceives the plan 
of occupying the d5-square, which cannot be controlled by a Black pawn. 
On move 32, the White Knight occupies the hole, and its superiority over 
the Black Bishop is the motif of the rest of the game. 

58. Reshevsky — Bronstein, Zurich. 1953. 

A full struggle in every phase: the opening, the King's Indian Defense, was 
fresh at the time, the middlegame is tense, and Black converts his advantage 
in the ending with a study-like finish. An original performance by Bronstein, 
who drew a 1951 World Championship Match with Botvinnik. 

59. Botvinnik -Smyslov, World Championship Match, Moscow, 1954. 

Botvinnik and Smyslov played three World Championship matches during 
the 1950's. In this game — from the first one — Botvinnik squeezes Black's 
pieces. Note how Black's Queen Knight does not get to move until the game 
is already decided. 

60. Botvinnik— Smyslov, World Championship Match, Moscow, 1954. 

Smyslov surprises Botvinnik with his 11th move. Then Black winds up with 
three minor pieces against the opposing Queen. Here the pieces are 
stronger, as they are able to converge in a coordinated cluster on White's 
King. 

t 61. Donald Byrne — Fischer, New York, 1956. 

This blinding brilliancy by the 13-year-old Fischer is known as "The Game 
of the Century." Starting with the salvo 11 . . . Na4, Black has complete control 
4 of the game. Much later, Fischer labeled this as his best game. Indeed, the 

teenager saw everything. 

62. Tal — Panno, Portoroz, 1958. 

Tal sacrifices a Rook and two pieces for the Queen. But, the Black pieces 
are scattered around the board while White can zero in on a target— the 
g7-pawn. Black defends well in the unusual position, and reaches the shore 
of a drawn ending. But, then wearied by the long struggle, he makes a 
mistake on his 41st move, and loses. 

39 


63. Tal — Smyslov, Bled, 1959. 

One of Tal's flashiest victories on the road to challenge Botvinnik for the 
world title. He offers a piece for a blazing attack on Black's King. 

64. Tal — Fischer, Zagreb, 1959. 

The young Fischer carelessly grabs a couple of irrelevant pawns on his 20th 
and 21st moves. Tal's punishment for this loss of time is a swift attack against 
Black's King. 

65. Tal — Keres, Belgrade, 1959. 

Keres achieves a powerfully centralized position. Then he converts his edge 
in a difficult endgame. 

66. Botvinnik— Tal, World Championship Match, Moscow, 1960. 

A game which generated much subsequent analysis. Tal introduces mind- 
boggling complications by sacrificing a Knight on his 21st move. Botvinnik, 
as many others, is unable to untangle the web woven by the Riga magician, 
and loses his way in the ensuing melee. 

67. Geller — Korchnoi, USSR Championship, 1960. 

This is the game that Korchnoi calls "dearest to my heart." Such a wide- 
open struggle requires tremendous energy for detailed calculation of 
variations. This is Korchnoi's forte; Geller falters on move 30, when Qgl 
would have held the draw. 

68. Smyslov— Bilek, Sochi, 1963. 

A game quite typical of Smyslov's harmonious style. After a middlegame, 
conducted by White with brisk originality, Smyslov secures a winning 
endgame in which his active pieces dominate Black's jumbled-up army. 

69. Petrosian — Botvinnik, World Championship Match, Moscow, 1963. 

A wonderful demonstration of a strong Knight triumphing over a bad Bishop. 
Petrosian is one of the few players who regularly favors Knights in the minor 
piece derby. 

70. Robert Byrne — Fischer, New York, 1963-64. 

The highlight of Fischer's 11-0 sweep of the U.S. Championship. From a 
stodgy opening, Fischer produces an unexpected Knight sacrifice, exposing 
the White King to the full fury of Black's pieces. 

71. Geller — Smyslov, Moscow, 1965. 

A violent King-side attack by White: he offers his Queen four times, and 
each time it cannot be captured without immediate loss. At the fourth offer, 
Black has seen enough; he resigns. 


40 



72. Spassky — Petrosian, World Championship Match, Moscow, 1966. 

Spassky has attacking notions in this game, but Petrosian seals off the lines 
to his King, and gradually prepares a powerful attack of his own. After 
42.fg4, White is a Rook up, but his King is exposed to a fatal draft. 

73. Petrosian — Spassky, World Championship Match, Moscow, 1966. 

Petrosian loves to sacrifice the exchange. In this game he gets a chance 
to do it twice, all in the interest of getting to Black's King. 

74. Larsen — Petrosian, Santa Monica, 1966. 

Larsen surprises the then-World Champion with a Queen sacrifice, which 
leads to an overwhelming attack on Black's King. 

75. Keres — Portisch, Moscow, 1967. 

Portisch, for two decades Hungary's strongest player, outplays Keres in a 
prolonged minor piece ending — one of the best of its type in chess literature. 

76. Stein — Keres, Moscow, 1967. 

Stein took first in this, one of the strongest international tournaments ever. 
White achieves an overwhelming preponderance in the center. 

77. Botvinnik— Portisch, Monte Carlo, 1968. 

With his 16th move. Black thinks he has trapped White's Rook. But he's in 
for a surprise: Botvinnik sacrifices the exchange, then follows it up with 
another Rook offer, which cannot be accepted because of checkmate. The 
bared Black King cannot survive for long. 

78. Smyslov — Liberzon. Riga, 1968. 

White's 27th move is a sudden Queen sacrifice that introduces a strong 
King-side attack. 

79. Smyslov— Tal, Moscow, 1969. 

The game is placid until White unbalances it by exchanging his Bishop 
for Black's Knight. The resulting doubled pawns prove to be crucially weak 
in the endgame. A fine example of Smyslov's skill in that phase of the game. 

80. Spassky— Petrosian, World Championship Match, Moscow, 1969. 

Petrosian plays the opening lifelessly. Spassky achieves a predominance 
in the center and in piece mobility, then launches a murderous King-side 
attack. 

81. Spassky— Petrosian, World Championship Match, Moscow, 1969. 

Spassky secures a powerful passed pawn in the center. Black goes pawn 
hunting in search of compensation, but finds that he has nothing with which 
to stop the passer. 


41 


82. Polugayevsky — Tal, Moscow, 1969. 

White sacrifices a central pawn to initiate a storming of the Black King. 
He follows up with a Bishop sacrifice, and Black is forced to exchange 
Queens to stave off mate. The ensuing ending is inferior for Black, then 
lost after an inaccuracy on move 28. 

83. Larsen -Spassky, Match USSR -Rest of the World, 1970. 

Larsen overdoes originality in the opening, and Spassky, with simple, 
classical moves, obtains a powerful position. Black sacrifices a piece to 
obtain a passed pawn, then throws a full Rook to gain a tempo for its 
advance. Surrounded by nothingness, White resigns rather than play his 
18th move. 

84. Fischer — Larsen, Palma de Mallorca, 1970. 

Fischer misplays that most exciting of openings, the Velimirovic Attack in 
the Sicilian Defense, and soon is a piece down. This was the American's 
only loss in the Interzonal Tournament, which he dominated on the way to 
winning the World Championship from Spassky. 

85. Fischer — Panno, Buenos Aires, 1970. 

Playing one of his favorite set-ups— the King's Indian Attack— Fischer drives 
home a crispy logical King-side attack. Noteworthy is 28.Be4, allowing 
White's last idle piece to join the fray. 

86. Fischer — Unzicker, Siegen Olympiad, 1970. 

A strategically cohesive game: Fischer plays the Exchange Variation of the 
Ruy Lopez to secure a King-side pawn majority, then pushes those wing 
pawns up, and transposes into an easily won endgame. 

87. Petrosian — Gligoric, Rovinj — Zagreb, 1970. 

For many years the Yugoslav Grand Master Gligoric was one of the leading 
devotees of the King s Indian Defense. Here, he uses that complex modern 
system to generate a sacrificial attack against Petrosian's King. 

88. Fischer — Petrosian, Buenos Aires, 1971. 

A sparkling positional performance by the great American against the 
former World Champion. 

89. Petrosian - Fischer, Buenos Aires, 1971. 

The game that broke Fischer's string of 13 straight victories in the Candidates 
Matches. Black blunders on his 13th move, and Petrosian never gives him 
a second chance. 


42 



90. Fischer — Spassky. World Championship Match, 1972. 

Fischer's best win irom the match which resulted in his becoming the first 
American World Champion since Morphy. White's threats against Spassky's 
King win an exchange for a pawn. With flawless technique, Fischer drives 
his material advantage home. 

91. Fischer — Spassky, World Championship Match, 1972. 

For many years, Fischer was a forceful advocate of l.e4 as the best way to 
start a chess game. But here he surprises the World Champion with a 
Queen's Gambit Opening, and plays it to perfection. At the game's end, 
Black is completely tied up, and can only watch helplessly as White prepares 
the winning breakthrough. 

92. Spassky— Tal, Tallinn, 1973. 

Tal's style lost some if its luster after he lost the World Championship back 
to Botvinnik in 1961. But, he remains the darling of chess fans around the 
world. And, occasionally the old dazzle returns — as it does here in his 
demolition of Spassky. 

93. Spassky— Tukmakov, USSR, 1973. 

In the sharp Najdorf Variation of the Sicilian Defense, Spassky sacrifices 
a Knight for pawns to expose Black's King to attack. White carries out a 
long siege; Black gives up the ghost when White's pawns advance to deny 
breathing space to the bereft King. 

94. Larsen — Korchnoi, Leningrad, 1973. 

White secures a broad center, but it is one subject to attack, and Korchnoi 
takes dead aim at it. White's last move is a blunder, losing a piece. 

95. Karpov— Uhlmann, Madrid, 1973. 

Playing his favorite line vs. the French Defense, Karpov infiltrates his Rooks 
into Black's position. Observe how helpless Black's Bishop is at game's end. 

96. Karpov— Spassky, Leningrad, 1974. 

Karpov emerges out of the opening with a more compact pawn structure 
and better piece mobility. The rest of the game is an illustration of how to 
use such advantages to infiltrate into the enemy camp. 

97. Karpov — Korchnoi, Moscow, 1974. 

When a game contains castling on opposite wings, there is usually a tense 
competition about whose attack will arrive first. White is the swifter here. 

98. Browne — Bisguier, U.S. Championship, 1974. 

The five-time U.S. Champion finds a new 14th move in an ancient variation. 
It works; the Rook ending that follows is not difficult for White to win. 


43 


99. Korchnoi — Petrosian, Sochi, 1974. 

Korchnoi uses a central space advantage to defeat his bitter rival Petrosian. 

100. Karpov— Kavalek, Nice, 1974. 

A typical Karpov endgame squeeze on the first board of the USA-USSR 
Olympiad Match. 

101. Karpov— Andersson, Milan, 1975. 

Andersson, Sweden's strongest player, makes a speculative exchange 
sacrifice vs. the World Champion. The venture achieves success when Karpov 
erroneously accepts it, then commits another inaccuracy on move 35. 

102. Ljubojevic— Andersson, Wijk aan Zee, 1976. 

White, the brilliant Yugoslav champion, sacrifices a pawn with his 12th move, 
in a position where nobody has done it before. Wonderfully complex play 
follows: Black pieces get tangled up on the Queen-side, and White is able 
to strike a few sharp blows against the Black King. 

103. Tatai — Karpov, Las Palmas, 1977. 

The World Champion sacrifices a pawn for long-term pressure, then breaks 
through to White's still centralized King with the brilliant shot 23. . .Qd3. 

104. Alburt — Kasparov, USSR, 1978. 

Played when Kasparov was 15, this game is a fine illustration of the Soviet 
phenom's complicated, energetic style. Possibly worn out by the tangled 
play, White falters on his 25th and 26th moves. 

105. Kasparov— Palatnik, USSR, 1978. 

A smashing King-side attack by the player, most likely to be next World 
Chess Champion. 

106. Gaprindashvili — Dzindzihashvili. Wijk aan Zee, 1979. 

The former Women's World Champion gains the advantage in a sharp 
opening variation, then converts it into a point with forceful endgame 
technique. 

107. Chiburdanidze — Dvojris, USSR. 1980. 

The Women's World Champion innovates in the much-studied position with 
the sacrifice 12.Nd5, and proceeds to blast through Black's defenses. 


44 



SECTION 4 
CHESS PROBLEMS 

Chess is a non-verbal game, but, paradoxically, it has spawned a literature 
more voluminious than any other game. All aspects of chess have acquired 
concepts, criteria and classifications. The experienced player selects his 
move after sorting through this web of knowledge to thread together the 
tapestry of each position. 

CHESS PROBLEMS is a collection of positions, each with a solution in the 
form of a move or variation. A discussion, outlining the thoughts of an 
experienced player, follows each solution. 

CHESS PROBLEMS does not aspire to be a complete primer of the game. 
Appended are a few recommended books, for those whose appetite for chess 
erudition is whetted. 

The positions are grouped in five catagories: 

1. Checkmates — some typical ways of accomplishing the game's 
ultimate objective. 

2. Openings — standard set-ups during the first phase of the game. 

3. Tactics — common ways of getting the upper hand by constructing 
variations (i.e., I move here, he moves there, then I play this 
smashing move). 

4. Strategy — the more permanent features of the position are 
highlighted here. 

5. Endgames — a few standard stratagems from this last phase of the 
game. 

In each problem (except for Openings, Problem 3), it is White to move. 

Commodore 64 

To access the following Chess Problems, use the load command (CTRL-L, 
Feature 17). After entering CTRL-L, the screen will be cleared and the 
following message will appear: 

LOAD GAME FROM DISK 
ENTER NAME OF GAME 

Remove the SARGON III Commodore 64 disk. Insert the disk with the Great 
Games and Chess Problems Commodore 64 label facing you. 


45 



At this point, you can request a catalog to review the contents of the Great 
Games and Chess Problems disk by entering the CATALOG command, you 
may abort the load by hitting RETURN without specifying a file name or 
you may enter a file name. As you will notice, the file names for the Chess 
Problems are in the following format: 

0PENINGS3 

or 

TACTICS6 

The number is the same as in the description below and there is no space 
between the category (i.e., "Openings" or "Tactics") and the number. 

Once the game has been loaded into memory, you will be prompted to 
reinsert the SARGON III Commodore 64 program disk. 

Please note that the Checkmate Problems are fully explained in the user's 
manual and are not saved to disk since you cannot continue to play from 
the final position. 

Atari 

To access the Chess Problems, use the Load command. After entering CTRL- 
L, the screen will clear and the following message will appear: 

LOAD GAME INSERT GAMES DISK 
ENTER GAME NAME 
D 1 

If you are using a single-drive system, remove the opening book disk and 
insert the Atari side of the Great Games and Chess Problems disk with the 
label facing you. If you are using a multiple-drive system, use the Delete 
key to backspace over the "Dl:" and type "D2:" in its place. You may specify 
as many as 4 disk drives by indicating the number in this manner. 

At this point, you can request a directory to review the contents of the Great 
Games and Chess Problems disk by entering the drive letter and number 
followed by the DIR command, you may abort the load by hitting RETURN 
without specifying a file name or you may enter a file name. 

The Chess Problems have numbers and abbreviations which correspond 
to their description in the documentation. They are listed on the disk in 
the following 4 character format: 

OPN 1 or TA05 or END2 or MT13 or ST09 

Once the game has been loaded into memory, you will be prompted to 
reinsert the opening book disk if necessary. 


46 



SARGON III assumes that you want to review the answer to the chess 
problem, so you are automatically placed in Replay Mode (see Feature 13, 
Replay Game). Use the RETURN key to see each move of the solution. 
Although the disk will only replay the primary solution to the problem, in 
many cases alternative solutions will be suggested in the textual description 
below. If you decide that you would like to continue playing the game, you 
may cancel Replay Mode by entering the command CTRL-X. SARGON III 
will cancel Replay Mode and leave you in the current position. 


47 



CHECKMATES 


Checkmates: Problem 1 



Solution: l.Qa7, Qb7, Qc8, Qd8, or Qe8 checkmate 

White has five different ways of checkmating the Black King. So 
many equivalent solutions are possible because of the Queen's 
great power and the unfavorable position of Black's King. 


Checkmates: Problem 2 



Solution: l.Rg8 checkmate 


48 





Checkmates: Problem 3 



Solution: l.Rc7 Ka8 2.Rc8 checkmate 

In this position, checkmate cannot be delivered immediately. It is 
necessary to calculate that, after Rc7, Black has only one legal 
move: 1 . . . Ka8, which allows checkmate by White on his next 
move. 


Checkmates: Problem 4 

8 
7 
6 
5 
4 
3 
2 
1 

abcdefgh 



Solution: l.Bf5+ Kh8 2.Bg7 checkmate 


Here all three of White's pieces cooperate to deny every square to 
Black's cornered King. 


49 





Checkmates: Problem 5 


8 
7 
6 
5 
4 
3 
2 
1 

Solution: l.Qd4 checkmate 

White has many possible checks with the Queen, but there is only 

one checkmate. 

Checkmates: Problem 6 


8 
7 
6 
5 
4 
3 
2 
1 

Solution: l.Re8 checkmate 

Black is weak on the back rank. Note that the mate would not be 
possible if any one of Black's King-side pawns (f 7, g7, or h7 
pawns) was on a square other than its initial square, or if Black's 
Bishop was in a different spot. 


50 



abcdefgh 





Checkmates: Problem 7 

8 

7 
6 

5 

4 

3 
2 
1 

abcdefgh 
Solution: l.Qxf8+ Kxf8 2.Rd8 checkmate 

As in Problem 6, Black is weak on the back rank; but here two 
moves are required to expose that fatal weakness. 

Checkmates: Problem 8 

8 
7 

6 

5 

4 
3 
2 
1 

Solution: l.Qd8+ Kxd8 2.Bg5++ (a) if 2 . . . Ke8 3.Rd8 

checkmate 

(b) if 2 . . . Kc7 3.Bd8 

checkmate 

White's first move sacrifices the Queen to deflect the King to a 
square where it is subject to a terrible double check by both Rook 
and Bishop. The Black King can flee two different ways— in both 
cases, it is checkmated. 



abcdefgh 



51 




Checkmates: Problem 9 



abcdefgh 


Solution: l.Rxe4+ (a)l ... dxe4 2.Qe6 checkmate 

(b) l ... Kd6 2.Qe6 checkmate 

(c) 1 ... Kf7 2.Qe6 checkmate 

(d) l ... Kf6 2.Qe6 checkmate 

White forces checkmate in two moves by sacrificing the exchange 
to remove the key defender of Black's King. Note that Black being 
two pieces up has no bearing on the situation— his King is too 
exposed. 

Checkmates: Problem 10 



abcdefgh 


Solution: l.Qf8+ Bg8 2.Qf6+ Bxf6 3.Bxf6 checkmate 


52 



Checkmates: Problem 1 1 


8 

7 

6 

5 

4 

3 

2 

1 


abcdefgh 



Solution: l.Nf7+ (a) 1 . . . Rxf7 2.Qxc8+ Rf8 3.Qxf8 check- 
mate 

(b) 1 . . . Kg 8 2.Nh6++ Kh8 3.Qg8+ Rxg8 
4.Nf7 checkmate 

In variation (b), White sacrifices the Queen to force Black' s Rook to 
occupy the only remaining square available to Black's King. This 
kind of checkmate is called smothered mate or Philidor's mate. 


Checkmates: Problem 1 2 



Solution: l.Rh 7+ (a)l...Nxh7 2. Qg7 checkmate 

(b)l ... Kxh7 2.Qg7 checkmate 

White's first move is a space clearance sacrifice, freeing the way 
for the Queen to administer mate. 


53 





Checkmates: Problem 1 3 


8 

7 
6 

5 

4 

3 
2 
1 

abcdefgh 

Solution: l .Bxg7+ Kxg7 2.Qxg5+ Kh8 3. Qf6 checkmate 

White exchanges a Bishop for a pawn to demolish a vital protector 
of Black's King. 

Checkmates: Problem 14 

8 
7 

6 

5 

4 
3 
2 
1 

Solution: l.Qh8+ Kxh8 2.Bf6+ Kg8 3.Rd8+ Re8 4.Rxe8 check- 
mate 

White's King seems in mortal danger, but he turns the tables on 
Black by giving up the Queen to decoy Black's King to a square 
where it is subjected to an unsurvivable attack by White's 
remaining pieces. 


mm mimi 

U if H ± 11 

wm, -mm. 


m m mtmt 

abcdefgh 



54 




Checkmates: Problem 1 5 


8 

7 

6 

5 

4 

3 

2 

1 


abcdefgh 



Solution: l.Rd6 (a) 1 . . . Nxd6 

(b) 1 . . . Rc8 

(c) 1 . . . Be8 

(d) 1 ... Bd5 

(e) 1 . . . Ne7 

(f) 1 ... Nd4 

(g) 1 . . . Ra8 


2.Be3 checkmate 
2.Nxa6 checkmate 
2.Nxa6 checkmate 
2.Nxa6 checkmate 
2.Nxa6 checkmate 
2,Nxa6 checkmate 
(or any other remaining 

move) 2.Rc6 checkmate 


The basic idea of White's first move, revealed in variation (a), is the 
blockade of the d6-square so that the Black King has no access to 
it. Then the Bishop is free to administer checkmate, as the Knight 
no longer controls the e3-square. 


As variations (b) to (g) show, Black is also threatened with two 
other checkmates: 2.Nxa6 and 2.Rc6. There is no move to deter 
both threats except for fatal variation (a). 


55 




OPENINGS 


Openings: Problem 1 

8 

7 

6 

5 

4 

3 

2 

1 



Solution: l.Nf3, l.Nc3, l.Bc4, l.f4, l.c3, l.d4 (l.Nf3 is the most 
popular, and best, move in this position; the other 
moves are acceptable. Here, the choice of the move is 
influenced by a particular player's predilections.) 

This position, after one move by each side, has been reached in 
countless games. By moving the e pawn two squares, each side 
has sent a pawn into the center, and opened lines for the Queen 
and Bishop. 

What are the possibilities now? 

Queen moves are premature: 

l.Qe2 and l.Qf3 bottle up the development of White's King-side; 
l.Qg4 exposes the Queen to immediate attack and loss of time 
(tempo) by 1 ... Nf6. The Queen will have to move again, while 
Black has developed a piece. 

l.Qh5 seems to make more sense, as it attacks thee5-pawnand the 
f 7 -pawn (which is a weak spot because it is protected only by the 
King). But, Black will reply 1 . . . Nc6, and the White Queen is 
misplaced and subject to future attack. 

In general, it is a mistake to develop the Queen before other pieces 
are out. As it is the strongest piece, it will have to scurry, and lose 
time, when attacked by any other enemy unit. 


56 



What about Bishop moves? 

l.Be2 puts the Bishop at a very modest spot. White, having the 
initial move in the opening, should strive to gain the advantage. 

l .Bd3 is a mistake, since it places that piece on a square where it 
blocks the d2-pawn. That pawn will have to be moved to 
participate in the struggle for the center, and to allow smooth 
development of White's Queen-side pieces. 

1 Bb5 needlessly exposes the Bishop on a square where Black can 
kick it with 1 . . . c6. 

l.Bc4 is a respectable move, initiating the Bishop Opening. It 
strikes at the f7-pawn. However, the move is not fashionable, 
mainly because it violates the general principle of developing 
Knights before Bishops. The Bishop, the more far-ranging piece, 
has a greater choice of squares to which it can go. Why not wait for 
the contours of the position to become more sharply delineated 
before committing that piece? 

Now, let us consider possible pawn moves. 

Moves by the a, b, g, and h pawns do nothing to further White's 
piece development or strengthen White's grip on the center. 
Indeed, moves by these pawns can create weaknesses (squares 
which cannot be controlled by pawns) that will be a source of 
problems later in the game. 

The move l.c4 also creates such a weak square, at d4. 

I.c3 has an idea behind it: to prepare the pawn push d4, and if 
Black plays e5xd4. White will be able to recapture with cxd4 and 
maintain a couple of strong central pawns. But 1 ,c3 is a ponderous 
move— it blocks the most natural developing square of the Knight 
at bl. 

I.d3 is also uninspiring— it opens the diagonal for the Bishop at 
cl, but it shortens the range of White's other Bishop. 

1 .d4 is sometimes played, but it is premature. If play proceeds 1 . . . 
e5xd4 2.Qxd4 Nc6, White will have to waste time removing the 
Queen from peril. 1 .f3 is about as bad as a move can be: it weakens 
the King position by opening the el-f2-g3-h4 diagonal to it, and it 
does nothing for White's development— in fact, it blocks the most 
natural square for developing the Knight on gl. 


57 



1 f4 aims to knock out Black' s e5-pawn, even at the cost of a pawn. 
It introduces the King's Gambit, an opening not as popular now as 
in the storied Romantic Era of chess more than a century ago. 

How about Knight moves? 

l.Ne2 does develop a piece, but not to an aggressive post. The 
move also temporarily hems in the Queen and the Bishop on fl. 

l.Nh3 and l.Na3 are also inferior, because on the side of the 
board, Knights have less range than on the more central squares. 

l.Nc3 develops the Knight to a central square; it initiates a 
common opening — the Vienna Game. 

Finally, l.Nf3 is the best move in the position. It develops the 
Knight centrally, and grants White the initiative: Black will have to 
do something about his e5-pawn, which White has attacked. 


58 



Openings: Problem 2 



Solution: 1.0-0 


In this position, White has several other reasonable moves, but 
none are as good as 1.0-0. 

The most obvious move is 1 .Nxe5, taking the Black pawn which is 
undefended. However, the gain of a pawn is only apparent. Black 
has two replies which regain the pawn with a good position: (a) 1 
. . . Qd4 is a double attack on the undefended Knight and the 64- 
pawn; White has no move to save both, (b) 1 ... Qg5 attacks the 
Knight and the g2-pawn. Again, both cannot be defended 
simultaneously. On 2.Nf3 Qxg2, White will no longer be able to 
castle on the King-side. 

l.Nc3 develops a piece and protects the e-pawn, but later in the 
game the Knight might be better developed to d2. 

I.d3 and l .Qe2 are passive moves, putting no pressure on Black. 

I.d4 was, for many years, the standard move in this position. It 
opens lines for the Queen and the Bishop on cl . Also, it prepares to 
exchange the d-pawn for the e5-pawn, leading to a position in 
which White has a 4-3 pawn majority on the King-side (e to h 
pawns). Such a pawn set-up is White's main strategic idea in this 
opening variation. 

However, 1.0-0 is the strongest move in the position. Castling is 
usually a good idea because it removes the King from the center, 
where it is in greater danger of being attacked, and it activates a 
Rook. 


59 




Also, in this position, 1.0-0 makes the threat of the Knight 
capturing the e5-pawn real. In contrast to variations where that 
move is played before castling, the g2-pawn is now defended by 
the King. And, the e4-pawn, although not directly defended, 
would be unappetizing for Black to capture with the Queen, since 
the Rook is now able to move to el, where it could generate threats 
to the King, based on the e-file now being open (since both e- 
pawns are missing). 

Thus, castling retains the initiative for White, since now Black, on 
his next turn, has to cope in some fashion with the threat against 
the e-pawn. 


Openings: Problem 3 



abcdefgh 
BLACK TO MOVE 


Solution: 1 . . . Bb6 


Black's Bishop is attacked, and he has only two moves to save it 
from immediate capture. 

The alternative to 1 . . . Bb6, 1 . . . exd4, is an error because White 
will recapture 2.cxd4. In the resulting position, White will have a 
great space advantage in the center. His e and d pawns occupy 
and control the four central squares. As Black has exchanged off 
his forward-most e5-pawn, the only counterweight to White's 
strong central phalanx would be the puny Black pawn at d6. 

1 ... Bb6, on the other hand, maintains Black's central 
strongpoint, and prevents Black from getting too cramped a 
position. 


60 




Openings: Problem 4 



abcdefgh 


Solution: l.b4 Qc6 (on any other move, theQueen is immediately 
captured) 

2.Bb5 Qxb5 3.Nc7+ Kd8 4.Nxb5 

An example of what might happen when the Queen starts 
wandering around too early in the opening. White forces the win 
of the Queen for a minor piece. 


61 



Openings: Problem 5 


8 
7 
6 
5 
4 
3 
2 
1 

abcdefgh 



Solution: l.Be3 

The White Knight on d4 is attacked, and White must do something 
about it. 1 .Be3 is best because another piece is developed, and the 
Knight remains on its strong central post. 

Inferior are: 

(a) l.Nxc6 bxc6, and White has fortified his central position 
because the pawn at c6 has more influence on it than when it was 
at b7. 

(b) l.Nb3 puts the Knight at a less effective spot. 

(c) l.Nf3 also decentralizes the Knight, and blocks the f-pawn 
which White often wants to advance when attacking in this 
opening. 

(d) l.Nde2 is passive, as it blocks the King Bishop. 

(e) l.Nb5 a6 2.Na3, and the Knight winds up terribly misplaced. 


62 



TACTICS 


Tactics: Problem 1 

8 

7 
6 

5 

4 

3 
2 
1 

abcdefgh 

Solution: l.Qe5 

An example of double attack. Both of Black's Rooks are attacked 
by the Queen, and there is no one move to save the two 
simultaneously. 

Tactics: Problem 2 

8 
7 

6 

5 

4 
3 
2 
1 

Solution: l.Qh8+ Kxh8 

White's first move decoys the Black King to a square where the 
Black King and Queen are subject to a Knight fork. As a result of 
the combination. White wins a pawn and should win the ending. 
Also, with the Queens off the board. White will no longer have to 
worry about attacks vs. his exposed King. 




63 



Tactics: Problem 3 


8 

7 

6 

5 

4 

3 

2 

1 


Solution: l.d5 

This double attack is called a pawn fork. Black's Knight on c6 and 
Bishop on e6 are simultaneously attacked, and Black will have to 
give up a piece for a pawn. 

Tactics: Problem 4 

8 
7 
6 
5 
4 
3 
2 
1 

Solution: l.Rdl+ Ke7 (or Kc7) 2.Rxd8 Kxd8 3.Bxb6+ K (any) 
4.Bxa5 

A combination which garners White an overwhelming material 
advantage. Black could minimize his loss by varying with 2 . . . 
Rxb5, but with only one pawn for the piece, he would have scant 
chance of saving the game. 




abcdefgh 


64 





Tactics: Problem 5 



Solution: l.Ra8 Rxh7 2.Ra7+ K (any) 3.Rxh7 and White wins 

The position is resolved by an x-ray attack through Black's King to 
win the Rook. Instead of 1 . . . Rxh7, Black can start a series of 
checks with 1 . . . Rh2+. However, this method will not change the 
result, since the White King will approach the h-file and the Rook 
will run out of safe checks. If Black does not capture the h7-pawn 
eventually, it will advance and Queen. 


Tactics: Problem 6 


8 
7 
6 
5 
4 
3 
2 
1 

abcdefgh 

Solution: l.Rel 

The Queen is pinned: it cannot move because the King would then 
be exposed to check. Black cannot avoid losing the Queen for the 
Rook— a devastating material handicap. 



65 




Tactics: Problem 7 


8 
7 
6 
5 
4 
3 
2 
1 

Solution: l.Rfl Rdl 2.Qh5+ K (any) 3.Qxf3 

A battle of pins. With his first move. White pins the Black Queen 
against the King. Black responds with a counter-pin, apparently 
saving the Queen. However, White has the final word on his 
second move, winning the immobilized Queen. 



abcdefgh 


Tactics: Problem 8 

8 
7 
6 
5 
4 
3 
2 
1 

Solution: l.Qa4(a) 1 . . . Qxa4 2.Rb8+ Qe8 3.Rxe8 checkmate 

(b) 1 . . . Qxg6 (or any other move which does not 
put Queen in take) 2.Qxc2 

(c) 1 ... Rc6 2.Qxc6 Qxc6 3.Rb8+ Qe8 4.Rxe8 
checkmate 

The Black Queen has to guard the weak back rank. White's first 
move attacks both the Queen and the unprotected Rook on c2. 



abcdefgh 


66 




Tactics: Problem 9 


8 
7 
6 
5 
4 
3 
2 
1 

abcdefgh 

Solution: l.Ne5 (a) 1 . . . Bxa4 2.Bxf7 checkmate 

(b) 1 , . . e6 2.Nxc6 

(c) 1 . . . Qd6 2.Nxc6 Nxc6 (if 2 . . . Qxc6, 

3.Bb5 wins Black's Queen because it 
is pinned to the King) 

White's Queen is attacked. But, instead of moving it, he makes a 
zwischenzug (an intermediate move), which has an even more 
compelling threat — checkmate. Black can save his King, but only 
at the expense of a piece. 



67 



Tactics: Problem 10 



Solution: l.Qxh7+ Kxh7 2.Ng5+ Kh6 3.Nxf7+ Kh7 4.Ng5+ Kh8 
5.Nf7+ with a draw by perpetual check 

In the initial position, White has a huge material deficit and is face- 
to-face with defeat. The prosaic l.Bxg6 would scarcely improve 
the situation, since White would still be more than a Rook behind. 
l.Ng5 allows a devastating Black attack, starting with 1 . . . Bc5+ 
(not 1 . . . Rxg5 2.Qh7 checkmate). White's salvation is a Queen 
sacrifice, deflecting the Black King to a square from which he will 
be subjected to unescapable pursuit by the two remaining White 
pieces. The game ends as a draw because of the three-fold 
repetition of position rule. 


68 




STRATEGY 

Strategy: Problem 1 

8 

7 
6 

5 

4 

3 
2 
1 

Solution: l.Rcl 

Rooks belong on open files. Usually, they are strongest on the 
seventh rank. Here 1 .Rcl seizes the open file. No matter how Black 
replies, White will be able to play 2.Rc7, winning a pawn in every 
variation. 

Strategy: Problem 2 

8 
7 

6 

5 

4 
3 
2 
1 

Solution: l.axb3 

White's decision is whether to recapture the Knight with the a- 
pawn or the c-pa wn, 1 .cxb3 opens the c-file for the Rook, but Black 
can hold his own here with 1 ... R(f)c8. I.axb3 is preferable 
because it is usually better to capture toward the center (that being 
the most /important part of the board), and because after l.axb3 
the White pawns are more united than after the other capture (i.e., 
there is only the gap on the f-file between them, instead of an 
additional gap on the c-file). 




69 




Strategy: Problem 3 


8 

7 

6 

5 

4 

3 

2 

1 


abcdefgh 



Solution: l.Ne6 

Although Bishops and Knights are nearly equal in value, the 
Bishop, being longer-ranging, is often the superior piece. This is 
especially true in this position, where Black has many weak white 
squares. By playing 1 .Ne6 White is attacking both the Queen and 
the Rook; Black's only move to prevent loss of the exchange is 1 . . . 
Bxe6. After 2.Qxe6, White's white-squared Bishop radiates power. 


Strategy: Problem 4 


8 
7 
6 
5 
4 
3 
2 
1 

abcdefgh 

Solution: l.Ne3 

At fl, the Knight is not active. With this move, White is aiming for 
the strong square, d5. There, the Knight would have an excellent 
central post, protected b/ the e4-pawn, and Black cannot chase it 
away with any of his own pawns. 



70 





Strategy; Problem 5 



Solution: l.Kc4 Kb6 2.g3 (a) 2 , . . Bf8 3.Ng5 & white wins a 

pawn. 

(b) 2 . . . K (any) 3.Nxc5 

(c) 2 . . . h4 3.gxh4 Bxh4 4.Nxc5 

Black's pawns are weak: all of them are isolated (i.e., they cannot 
be guarded by another pawn), and the c6 and c5 pawns are 
doubled (i.e., two pawns of the same color on one file). With his 
second move, White sets up "zugzwang" (i.e., a position in which 
every move available to the side on the move worsens his 
position). Black has to lose at least a pawn — a direct consequence 
of his weak pawn position. 


71 




Strategy; Problem 6 


8 
7 
6 
5 
4 
3 
2 
1 

Solution; l.Rcl with threat of 2.Bxb6 and 2.d6, in both cases 
winning a pawn. Black has no reply which 
could preserve the pawn. 

Black's c7-pawn is backward (i.e., it is on the half -open c-file, it is 
behind its neighboring friendly pawns, and it is restrained from 
advancing by White's b5 and d5 pawns). A backward pawn is 
usually a good target for the opposing pieces. 



abcdefgh 


72 




Strategy: Problem 7 



Solution: l.Qd5 Qe8 2.a5 h6 3.Qxf7+Qxf7 4.Bxf7+ Kxf7 5.a6d5 
6.a7 any 7.a8(Q) With the material advantage of 
Queen vs. Bishop, White will win easily. 

This position demonstrates the importance of mobility of the 
pieces in evaluating a position. White's Bishop and Queen control 
more squares than their sorry Black counterparts. In addition, 
White has a strong passed pawn on the a-file. With his first move, 
White ties Black's Queen down to the defense of the vulnerable f7 
pawn. Then he advances on the other flank with his free a-pawn. 
This alteration of threats is a frequent method of cashing in a 
mobility preponderance. Black can play differently from the 
variation cited in the solution — then he will lose differently. Note 
that Black's extra pawn plays no role here. 


73 




Strategy: Problem 8 



Solution: l.Rc6 Rxc6 (otherwise White wins either the b or d- 
pawn, with a winning endgame) 

2.dxc6 Rd8 3.Rxd6 Rxd6 4.c7 and the pawn will 
Queen next move 

Although at first sight the position seems nearly symmetrical, 
White has two points in his favor: (a) he controls more space; and 

(b) it is his move. With his first move, White occupies a strong 
outpost square on the open file. No matter how Black responds, he 
is saddled with a losing endgame. 

Strategy: Problem 9 



abcdefgh 


Solution: l.g4 (a) 1 ... Bxe5 2.gxh5 

(b) 1 . . . Nf4 2.Bxf4 

(c) 1 . . . Nf6 2.exf6 

(d) 1 . . . Ng3 2.hxg3 


Knights are least effective on the board's edge, because they 
control the fewest squares from there. The first move here traps 
the Knight — it has no safe square to head for. 


74 



Strategy: Problem 10 



Solution: l.g4 Bg6 2.Nd2 

White locks the Black Bishop out of play. At the first opportunity, 
White will continue with f3, and there will be no way for the Black 
Bishop to break out of its dungeon. In effect, White will be a piece 
up. He can utilize this edge on the other side of the board, laying 
siege to Black's main weakness— the d6-pawn— with his Rook, 
Knight, and, if necessary, his King. Eventually, that pawn will fall 
to White's superior force. With his d5-pawn becoming passed, 
White should have an easy time of it. During the whole procedure, 
Black's Bishop will be a helpless bystander at g6. 

The solution to this problem, and the correct subsequent 
procedure, is an illustration of a plan— the framework of strategic 
thinking about chess. The outlined procedure might take many 
moves to execute; but conceptually, it is quite simple. 


75 



ENDGAMES 


Endgames: Problem 1 



Solution: l.b6 (a) 1 ... axb6 2.c6 

(al) 2 ... bxa5 3.cxb7 and 
the b-pawn will Queen 
(a2) 2 . . . bxc6 3.a6 and 
the a-pawn will Queen 

(b) 1 . . . cxb6 2.a6 

(bl) 2 . . . bxc5 3.axb7 and 
the b-pawn will Queen 
(b2) 2 . . . bxa6 3.c6 and 
the c-pawn will Queen 

(c) 1 . . . any other move 2.bxc7 or 2.bxa7, 
depending on circumstances, will yield an 
unstoppable passed pawn. 

This example illustrates a pawn breakthrough leading, in all 
variations, to a passed pawn, with which Black cannot cope. 


76 




Endgames: Problem 2 



Solution: l.Kd5 Ke7 2.Kc6 Kd8 3.Kd6 Kc8 4.Ke7 Kc7 

5.d5 Kc8 6.d6 K (any) 7.d7 K (any) 8.d8 (Q) 
and White wins 

A crucial position in the King plus pawn vs. King ending. If White 
plays any other first move, the position will be drawn. For 
example: 

(a) l.d5 Kd6 2.Kd4 Kd7 3.Kc5 Kc7 4.d6+ Kd7 5.Kd5 Kd8 
6.Ke6 Ke8 7.d7+ Kd8 8.Kd6 and draw by stalemate 

(b) l.Ke5 Ke7 2.Kd5 Kd7 3.Kc5 Kc7 4.d5 Kd7 5.d6 Kd8 
6.Kc6 Kc8 7.d7+ Kd8 8.Kd6 and draw by stalemate 

The key idea in winning the ending is for White to seize the 
opposition with his King in front of the passed pawn. Opposition is 
defined as the separation of Kings on the same line or diagonal by 
an odd number of squares. In the solution, White gains the 
opposition with his first move. 


77 




Endgames: Problem 3 



Solution: l.Bd6 K (any) 2.Bb7 winning the Knight and the game 

With his first move. White controls all the squares that the Knight 
can escape to, while the second move prepares to capture it. 


Endgames: Problem 4 


8 

7 

6 

5 

4 

3 

2 

1 


Solution: l.h8 (Q)+ Kxh8 2.Kf6 Kg8 3.g7 Kh7 4.Kf7 Kh6 

5.g8 (Q) and White wins 

To win this endgame, White has to sacrifice his h pawn. A wrong 
try is l.Kg5 Kh8 2.Kf6, and the game is a draw because of 
stalemate. 



abcdefgh 


78 




Endgames: Problem 5 



Solution: l.Qd3+ Kel 2.Kf5 Kf2 3.Qd4+ Kfl 4.Qf4+ Kg2 

5.Qe3 Kfl 6.Qf3+ Kel 7.Ke4 Kd2 8.Qd3+ Kel 
9.Kf3 Kfl 10.Qxe2+ Kgl ll.Qg2 checkmate 

Both sides can vary their moves. It is the method that is important. 
Given a free move, Black will draw the game by Queening. So, 
White must keep driving Black's King in front of the pawn to buy 
time so that he can approach the pawn with his own King. Once 
the King is near the enemy pawn, the rest is easy. 


79 





SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Introductory Books: 

Averbakh, Y. Chess Endings: Essential Knowledge 

Chernev, I. Combinations: The Heart of Chess 

Chernev, I. Logical Chess, Move-by-Move 

Chernev, I. The Most Instructive Games of Chess Ever Played 

Chernev, I. and Reinfeld, F. Winning Chess 

Euwe, M. and Meiden, W. The Road to Chess Mastery 

Evans, L., et. al. How to Open a Chess Game 

Keres, P. and Kotov, A. The Art of the Middle Game 

Znosko-Borovsky, E. How Not to Play Chess 

A Few Classics: 

Alekhine, A. My Best Games of Chess, 2 volumes 
Bronstein, D. Zurich International Chess Tournament, 1953 
Fischer, R. My 60 Memorable Games 
Nimzovich, A. My System 

Most of these books are available, at special membership prices, from 
the United States Chess Federation. 


81 



US CHESS 

FEDERATION 

Dear SARGON III owner. 

In choosing the SARGON III package, you've shown not only good 
judgment but an interest in chess. As Membership Director of the 
United States Chess Federation, I invite you to join America's Chess 
People. Your new computer opponent will give you hours of pleasure, 
and if you act soon, you have an opportunity to enjoy all the excitement 
and fun of the world of chess. 

Members of the U.S. Chess Federation enjoy a competitive edge over 
other chess hobbyists. As recognized players, they meet in clubs and in 
official tournaments. Like them, you will find that your chess skill will 
improve enormously as you test your ideas against a variety of 
opponents. 

As a member you will enjoy other advantages: 

• Chess Life magazine every month, with stories about 
grandmasters and computers, plus tips on how to win more 
games. Chess Life is the official journal of record for U.S. Chess. 

• Information about clubs and tournaments. 

• Measurement of your growth in skill with USCF's famous 
computerized rating system, now adopted worldwide. 

• Passport to play in official tournaments all over the country. 

• Discounts and advice on chess books. 

• Ways to meet other chessplayers in your area. 

Because you are a SARGON III owner, I'm pleased to offer you a special 
introductory membership. For only $7, you can become a full member 
of USCF for six months — this is a significant savings over the usual rate 
of $20 a year. This special offer is available only to first-time members. 

The U.S. Chess Federation is the official membership organization and 
governing body of America's Chess People. We represent the United 
States in the World Chess Federation, linking our members with other 
chessplayers throughout the world. U.S. Chess People range from 
beginners to Bobby Fischer. Don't miss this special chance to join us. 

Sincerely, 

Wray^cCalester 
Membership Director 


82 



Please make checks payable to the United States Chess Federation and 

send to: 

United States Chess Federation • 186 Route 9W • 

New Windsor, NY 12550 
(914) 562-8350 

The USCF is not-for-profit membership organization. 

As a SARGON III Owner, I save 30 Percent! 

Yes, I want a passport to the whole world of chess. Please register me as a full 
member of the official U.S. Chess organization at this special introductory 
rate. I qualify for this rate and my check for $7 is enclosed to make me a 
member for six months. 


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